In recent years, in all countries, urban transport pose specific
problems and produce significant damage to political, social and environmental
(pollution, noise, and stress). The best solution to problems of environmental
pollution is electric vehicle (EV) as an alternative means of transport.
Electric car is a vehicle that uses an electric motor as a drive with
electric power from a source, usually battery. The major advantages of electric
car are fuel economy, pollution near zero outside production, efficiency/high
yield, instant acceleration, very low noise, easy maintenance by eliminating
much of the classic motor car. High price and low autonomy are barriers to the
success of such vehicles. Over nearly two decades, 86 % of cars in circulation
will be powered by conventional motors. However, they have several
disadvantages. Major disadvantages are high cost, relatively high load time,
lifetime low of about 3-5 years, reduced autonomy max. 300 km. Batteries are
reducing capacity by 50 % or more at temperatures below 10 0C and above 40
0C and tend to overheat and even explode under certain conditions. In 1996,
the first serial production electric car, EV1 (Electric Vehicle 1), were
manufactured in the U.S. by General Motors, and circulated on California
roads. Although General Motors has built and launched on the market between
the years 1996-1999 the first electric car, EV1 was withdrawn and recycled to
pressure oil companies and the argument of lack of market demand.
Lithium batteries have been proposed for the first time in 70 years, but
their sale started only after 20 years. Lithium is a metallic substance such as
highly volatile and corrosive, which reacts violently with many other substances.
Corrosive properties of lithium are strongly enhanced with increasing
temperature, leading to accelerated oxidation coatings and the membranes that
separate the battery components, leading eventually to irreversible damage.
Much lighter than regular batteries, rechargeable, usually made of nickel
components with better performance and longer life Li-ion cells were deejay Li-
ion cells have been used for proper laptops and mobile phones. Using lithium
batteries to power electric vehicles involves ensuring some form of Li ion
batteries, many experts feel that the technology is ready for the first generation
of electric vehicles. The year 2008 is the de facto beginning of the era in allelectric
vehicle range. This year she has launched various marketing concepts
battery with a relatively high yield and affordable. Thus, it is expected that by
2010-2015 an electric car can be manufactured on a large scale performance
series at a price close to the price of petrol cars.
Keywords: electric cars, history, advantages, disadvantages, power
electric vehicles
Cuvinte cheie: automobile electrice, istoric, avantaje, dezavantaje,
alimentarea autovehiculelor electrice