OPTIMAL POWER REPARTITION BETWEEN UNITS OF A HYDRO POWER PLANT
The paper presents a methodology for the operation of those hydro power plants provided with more penstocks and more units by the optimal distribution of the dispatched power among its available generating units, aiming at the maximum efficiency of the completely hydro power plant energy conversion. Considering the unit operating characteristics as unequal at different head levels, the authors propose a modern program of optimal distribution of power between the units of a hydro power plant to take into account the real characteristics and real head for each unit to define the actual performance specifications. Further, this information can be utilized in the optimization process to minimize water expenditure at hydropower plant.
Keywords: hydro power plant, hydro unit, efficiency, hydraulic turbine, optimal load distribution
Cuvinte cheie: centrală hidroelectrică, hidroagregat, randament, turbina hidraulică, distribuţia optima a încărcării
OPTIMAL POWER REPARTITION BETWEEN UNITS OF A HYDRO POWER PLANT
THE IMPORTANCE OF USING REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR
CROP VEGETATION STATE MONITORING
The paper highlights the usefulness of remote sensing data for crops
vegetation state monitoring. For this was chosen as a study area, the
Agricultural Research Station Caracal, located in Olt County, in the Region IV
South-West Oltenia. As remote sensing were used high resolution (Landsat,
spatial resolution 30 m data) and medium (MODIS (spatial resolution of 500 m)
satellite images. They were used to calculate to the following vegetation
indices: the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI), normalized
difference water index (NDWI) and normalized difference drought index (NDDI).
For a complete analysis was performed a correlation between the vegetation
indices and main agro-meteorological parameters registered to Caracal
meteorological station (rainfall and soil moisture).
Keywords: crops, remote sensing data, NDVI, NDWI, NDDI
Cuvinte cheie: culturi agricole, date de teledetecție, NDVI, NDWI, NDDI
INNOVATION AND PATENT ESSENTIAL SUPPORT
HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY
As a continuation of previous work, this paper develops new areas
relative to the harmonious development of the country, especially related to
economic development based on local fruition international patent inventors.
Such a development can be achieved by legislative additions to greater cointerest
inventors and, especially, to co-interest and to upload material
responsible economic and political decision-makers to promote inventions local
professionals. This would achieve better results in fighting corruption, little
aspect analyzed by date.
Keywords: innovation, harmonious development, talent fruition, gross
domestic product/capita GDP/inhabitant, patent
Cuvinte cheie: inovare, dezvoltare armonioasă, fructificare talente,
produs intern brut / cap de locuitor PIB/loc, brevet de invenţie
METHODS TO STREAMLINE THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT THE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS. USING BIOGAS OBTAINED FROM SLUDGE FERMENTATION IN THERMAL PLANTS (CASE STUDY: CONSTANTA NORD WWTP)
This paper aims to present a simple way to evaluate the biogas production from the sludge resulting from the wastewater treatment process. Attention is given to three topics: the wastewater sludge fermentation and the evaluation of the biogas production with BioWatts software, but also to providing a general view of the thermal plant, the flow of the technological process and the equipment’s required to store and use the biogas as the main fuel for the thermal plant.
Keywords: sewage, waste water, biogas, energy efficiency
Cuvinte cheie: epurare, ape uzate, biogaz, eficiența energetică
PROPER IMPLEMENTATION OF CAR FIRES HRR IN COMPUTER SIMULATION PURPOSE
The article presents the work of the authors concerning establishing the HRR (heat release rate) for modern cars considering the new materials used to build them. In order to do this, large scale test were studied involving small and middle size cars, in purpose to measure the burning time and determine HRR (heat release rate) using the oxygen calorimetric method. The results obtained are compared with some others similar results and become very important for knowledge and for establishing protection measures especially for close and semi-closed spaces crossed by cars.
Keywords: HRR, real scale test, simulation, oxygen calorimetric method
Cuvinte cheie : rata de eliberare a căldurii, testare la scară reală, simulare, oxygen, metodă calorimetrică
ASPECTS OF CAVITATION EROSION AT SUCTION
CONES FROM FRANCIS TURBINES
In this article is presented the effect of cavitation applied to the suction cones that equip Francis turbines of HPP Motru. Cavitation erosion is evaluated through in-situ measurements are processed and presented in a new way in this article. It was determined a correlation between various regimes of functioning and the cavitation erosion appeared on the suction cones. Also experimentally was determined optimal maintenance period considering the cavitation attack intensity.
Keywords: cavitation, vacuum con, turbine, Francis, coefficients of cavitation, aeration
Cuvinte cheie: cavitație, con aspirator, turbină, Francis, coeficienți de cavitație, aerare
COMPUTATIONAL FIRE SIMULATION TO A CAR IN A SEMICLOSED SPACE
The article presents the work of the authors concerning the 3D fire simulation at a semi closed space involving one stationary car. A simulation using Pyrosim software is based on the physical model in which one electrical fault accident involving a car appear. The accident, consisting in a fire event at one stationary car, is modelled at 1.5 m from height. Considering an electrical fault followed by a fire, we obtained temperature fields and smoke spread depending on time in this tunnel. These information allow us to realize an appropriate impact on the event in aim of minimizing the time for a promptly intervention.
Keywords: road tunnel fire, heat release rate, Pyrosim software
VISUAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE
There are two points of view about wind farms, one is refer to produce
energy from renewable sources, and other to reduce the impact of this
development. The visual impact of the wind farm is one of the important factors
that affects public acceptance. This paper presents a few methods of
evaluating the impact. Wind farms have a better acceptance if the number of
turbines in an area is limited, or if the turbines are kept away from observation
Keywords: the Visual impact of wind parks, impact assessment
Cuvinte cheie: impactul vizual al parcurilor eoliene, evaluare impact
CONSIDERATION ABOUT THE OPPORTUNITY OF NATURAL
GASES PROGNOSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Of all forms of primary energy currently participating almost to
meeting energy needs in Moldova gas lies the largest share – about 60 % full
resources imported from the foreign market carriers energy. Therefore the
problem of determining, monitoring and control of natural gas consumption, and
estimate its possibilities of coverage opportunities is an actual goal, which
raged experts in the field.
Keywords: energy, monitoring, natural gas consumption,climatic
factors, reserves, energy security
Cuvinte cheie: energie, monitorizare, consumul de gaze naturale,
factorii climatici, rezerve, securitatea energetică
EXPLOATATION OF VOLUMETRIC PUMPS WHICH
ACT DAM SAFETY SYSTEMS
Exploitation means all operations which are performed in order to
efficiently use the parameters of equipment or a machine in order to maintain
their values as acceptable for a period of time. Experience shows that often
because major malfunctions, found during exploitation, were due to failure or
not taking into account the indications that seem usually unimportant.
This article presents important aspects of operating pumps that
discharge valve installation equips bottom dam Motru applicable for the range
of volumetric pumps that equip hydraulic installations. Following situations were
analysed: replacement pumps less than 30 years in operation, adapting the
existing hydro plant, adjustments made for putting into service and operation.
Key words: axial-piston pump volume, exploitation, life expectancy, ass
Cuvinte cheie: pompă volumică cu pistoane axiale, exploatare, durată
de viață, golire de fund
MAGNETIC FIELD ANALYSIS IN
MAGNETIC NANOFLUID ROTATING SEALS
Design concepts and some constructive details of the magneto fluidic
rotating seal systems are presented. Efficient computing techniques were
developed to estimate the magnetic field distribution in order to provide easier
design and to allow further investigation concerning the factors influencing the
Keyword: magnetic sealing nanofluide, numerical simulation, magnetic
field distribution, sealing capacity
Cuvinte cheie: etanşare cu nanofluide magnetice, simulare numerică,
distribuţia câmpului magnetic, capacitate de etanşare
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING
CONTAMINATED SITES MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE
In the last three decades, contaminated sites management in Europe
has been developed as a very complex domain of the environment protection,
but lack of the EU legislation for this difficult issue led to differences between
European states. Remediation of the contaminated sites needs important
Keywords: potentially contaminated site, contaminated site,
remediation of contaminated sites management
Cuvinte cheie: sit potenţial contaminat, sit contaminat, remediere,
managementul siturilor contaminate
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR 100,000
POPULATION EQUIVALENT – CASE STUDY – FEASIBILITY
STUDY FOR UPGRADING THE TREATMENT PLANT PITESTI
The present paper presents the study of an municipal wastewater
plant which is designed for 100,000 population equivalent. The research is
focused on the feasibility study for upgrading the treatment plant Pitesti. The
aim of the refurbishment works is to rehabilitate and develop the water supply
system and sewerage, actions resulting from their aging both morally and
physically and development of socio-economic activities in the city of Pitesti.
Keywords: wastewater treatment plant, upgrading, quality indicators
Cuvinte cheie: staţie de epurare, retehnologizare, indicatori de calitate
3D SIMULATION OF A FIRE IN SITUATION
IN BUCHAREST SUBWAY
The article presents the work of the authors concerning the 3D fire
simulation at a subway metro station in Bucharest, Romania. The subject is
very important, as in such a real case of fire in subway stations, large number
of casualties can occur.
Cuvinte cheie: 3D simulare, metrou, foc, simulare de incendiu
Keywords: 3D simulation, subway fire, fire simulation
EVACUATION OF A BUCHAREST Metro STATION IN CASE
OF EMERGENCY. 3D COMPUTER SIMULATION
The article presents the work of the authors concerning the 3D
evacuation simulation at a subway metro station in Bucharest, Romania. The
subject is very important, as in such a real case that impose real evacuation
from subway stations, large number of casualties can occur and a lot of
attention must be paid to prevention and organizing the evacuation activity.
Cuvinte cheie: simulare de evacuare 3D, foc evacuare, metrou,
modelare de evacuare
Keywords: 3D evacuation simulation, subway, fire evacuation,
ETHANOL, CLEAN FUEL FOR FIRE TESTS.
The following article presents information on the choice of ethanol
as combustible for suppression tests, after running a computer simulation
program, called Pyrosim.
Cuvinte cheie: etanol, teste de incendiu, modele, simulare, mediu,
Keywords: ethanol, fire tests, models, simulation environment
The paper analyses the wave energy capture and conversion with
hydro pneumatic equipments.
Main stages and activities of the project, results
a) A relevant study has been accomplished which analyzed the
hydro-meteorological conditions in the western Black Sea. Also it has been
made a documented presentation of the types of hydro plants suitable for
efficient conversion of wave energy in this area.
b) An experimental model of small-scale power plant driven by
waves has been designed and executed. Also, it has been performed
experiments on this model and on a specialized channel for wave simulation.
Hydropneumatic and energetic characteristics has been obtained and similarity
criteria for reporting results scale and choosing the best construction were
c) Building plans for a full scale hydro power plant were developed.
The generator which converts the wave energy into electrical energy was also
designed and made.
d) Experiments were conducted on a stand in a wind tunnel to test
the electrical generator, which required the devise and development of specific
support and aligning elements. The turbine was gradually loaded by connecting
to the shaft an electrical generator having a variable resistive load at output.
e) Determinations were performed in air velocity range of 5-20 m/s,
and characteristics of mechanical power have been extrapolated by specific
similarity criteria up to 50 m/s. It was concluded that the conversion unit is
compatible with a maximum power of 3.6 kW at an air velocity of 50 m/s
f) It has been developed technical documentation for construction
and assembly of micro hydro power plant.
g) There were carried out analytical calculations and computer
simulations to demonstrate the functionality of the model to illustrate the
phenomenology of the flow in the oscillating column, the dynamic behavior of
the turbine, and the correlation with experimental results.
Cuvinte cheie: microelectrocentrale, resurse regenerabile, conversia
Keywords: micro power plant, renewable resources, energy