LIMONENE AS A RAW MATERIAL FROM
Limonene is a monoterpenic compound extracted from citrus peels.
Limonene can be used as is due to its characteristic pleasant smell or can be
used as raw material for a series of synthesis in order to obtain valuable
compounds. Being a non-polar organic compound it may be used as a solvent
for non-polar organic compounds, including polystyrene. This paper presents a
succinct set of data from the literature related to the obtaining and possible
applications of limonene.
Cuvinte cheie: limonen, ulei de citrice, polymer
LIMONENE AS A RAW MATERIAL FROM
PURIFFICATION OF LIMONENE OBTAINED BY STEAM
The paper presents the results obtained by steam distillation of
limonene from citrus peels. FT-IR spectra are presented for a sample of
limonene following the preparation in comparison with the spectra for a sample
purified by extraction in trichloroethylene and dehydrated with magnesium
sulphide. The paper has mainly a teaching character, in order to teach
laboratory techniques such as steam distillation, extraction, drying for
purification. The identification of some adsorption bands in IR spectra is also a
good practice in order to consolidate the theoretical knowledge’s.
Cuvinte cheie: limonen, extracŃie, proces de distilare, spectrometru
DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF
POLYMETHYLMETACRILAT FILMS THROUGH REFLECTION
The transmittance values measured in IR reflection-absorption (RA)
spectra can be used to determine the optical constants of dielectric films laid on
To obtain the optical constants of polymethylmetacrilat films laid on
nickel we used dispersion analysis. In this case, the optical constants are
obtained from IR spectrum recorded at a single incidence angle and
transmission IR spectrum. Using dispersion analysis offers the advantage of
processing a large volume of data.
Cuvinte cheie: reflexie-absorbŃie, constante optice, spectre IR, analiza
THE OBTAINING OF Fe2O3 BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS
The paper is a review of literature data related to iron oxide films
obtained from inorganic precursors using spray pyrolysis, an easy method
which does not involve high costs. The influence of deposition conditions on
structural and morphological properties is also presented.
Cuvinte cheie: oxid de fier, filme, spray pyrolysis
MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE
This paper presents a series of literature data related to morphology of
titanium dioxide obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides. Morphological properties of
titanium dioxide depend on particle size, specific surface area and particle
distribution. Particle size is influenced directly by obtaining and calcinations
temperature, the environment in which the hydrolysis reaction takes place and
Cuvinte cheie: dioxid de titan, proprietăŃi morfologice, microscopie
electronică de transmisie
OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Fe2O3
OBTAINED BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS
The paper is a review of literature data related to the optical and
electrical properties of iron oxide (Fe2O3) films. The main optical properties
studied were the transmittance, the absorption coefficient and the optical
bandgap. An important electrical property which was also presented was the
Cuvinte cheie: oxid de fier, filme, energia benzii interzise, absorbŃie,
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE
This paper presents a series of literatures data on the structure of
titanium dioxide obtained by sol-gel technique. Obtaining a crystalline structure of
TiO2 depends on temperature and the thermal treatment applied later and also
depend on the catalysts used in the preparation process. Photocatalytic
properties of titanium dioxide are given by anatas crystalline structure, a structure
obtained by heat treatment between 100 0C and 500 0C.
Cuvinte cheie: dioxid de titan, difracŃie de raze X, proprietăŃi structurale
OBTAINING OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE BY SOL-GEL
METHOD. HYDROLYSIS PROCESSES
The paper presents a comparative study of a series of data from
literature related to the obtaining of titanium dioxide by sol-gel method by
hydrolysis processes. It presents the main parameters of the production
process, the heat treatment applied in order to obtain crystalline phases of
interest. Also the paper summarizes the treatment methods applied in order to
avoid the process of agglomeration of formed particles.
Cuvinte cheie: dioxid de titan, metoda sol-gel, proces de hidroliză
THE OBTAINING OF ANTHOCYANINS
The paper presents the results obtained by extraction of anthocyanins
from red cabbage by different methods (Soxhlet extraction, extraction under
microwave irradiation, ultrasonic extraction, extraction by boiling). It presents a
method for analysis of extracted compound using VIS spectroscopy. The
variation of optical properties of the extract depending on pH is also presented.
Cuvinte cheie: antocianine, procedee de extracŃie, spectroscopul UVVIS
CEN/TC 230 „WATER ANALYSIS” – SHORT
PRESENTATION AND WORKING DOCUMENT
There is a close link between standardized methods and EU
legislation and in order to fulfil the needs, TC 230 studies carefully the
developments in EU legislation. In this respect, special attention is given to the
proposed Water Framework Directive and to the revision of the bathing water
Directive. Concerning the existing legislation, all standards elaborated in
CEN/TC230 can be useful for monitoring purposes, provided, the validation
sofar executed is found satisfactory.
Cuvinte cheie: apa, standardizare, documente
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SLUDGES FROM
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
The overall objective of a sludge management strategy should be to find
outlets for the sludge which are safe, environmentally acceptable, secure and
economic. The options for treatment and use or disposal are complex even for
a single treatment works and more so if, as is often the case, a treatment and
disposal strategy is required for a number of works on a regional basis.
Cuvinte cheie: deseu, nămol, apă uzată, reducere
THEORETICAL CONSITERATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL
TREATMENT IN WASTEWATER
The article presents theoretical considerations about the role of
microorganisms in the biological wastewater treatment, as an advance water
treatment method, in the vision of sustainable development.
Cuvinte cheie: microorganisme, tratament biologic, proces biologic,
tratarea apelor uzate
BIOFILTER CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION USED IN
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES
The article presents dates and methods about utilization biofilters in
order to improve the quality of wastewater treatment processes on waste
water treatment plants.
Cuvinte cheie: biofiltre, reactoare biologice, filtrelor de contact,
procesul de tratare a apelor uzate
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES EFFICIENCY
WHIT USING OF POLIENZYMATICS MIXTURES
Enzyme treatment involves the dramatic acceleration of natural
biodegradation. Specific enzymes introduced into a lake environment will
immediately start to breakdown complex compounds into simpler
compounds that bacteria can rapid digest.
Cuvinte cheie: eficientizare, epurare, uzate, amestecuri polienzimatice
RECYCLING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER WITH HEAVY
METAL CONTAIN BY ION EXCHANGE
Removing heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater by ion
exchange is based on the properties of the ion – cationic exchanger to change
their own captions with those from the wastewater. The purification technology
by ion exchange consists of replacing the polluting ion from the used water with
another ion, which is much less polluted, or which results in obtaining an
insoluble chemical compound or one that is easier to remove. The ion
exchange between the zeolite and the heavy metal ions is a type of adsorption
-chemical reaction – denuding, and the transfer through the zeolite pores
determines the process. The process is favorite by temperature increase, by pH
increase of the solution from the wastewater, the heavy metal ion concentration
increase of the initial solution, the quantitative increase of the volcanic tuff.
Cuvinte cheie: ape uzate, schimb ionic, zeoliŃi
IMPACT OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES FROM
CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS INTO SOIL, GROUND AND
SURFACE WATERS, AND INDOOR AIR.
These work containers the information’s regarding the technical
regulations and European or national standard in the field of constructions
materials and products. These standards established harmonized test methods
and requirements for the release or emission of dangerous substances in order
to satisfy the requirements of the third essential requirement (regarding
substances dangerous to health, hygiene and environment) of the
Constructions Products Directive.
Cuvinte cheie: construcŃii, produse de construcŃii, substanŃe
periculoase, substanŃe reglementate, eliberare, emisie, legislaŃie,
standardizare, cerinŃe, metode de determinare
CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPACT OF
IRRIGATION UPON SOIL CRUST
The soil crust is formatted as a result of excessive humidity absorbed
by soil, which exceed its capacity of retaining water.
This leads to additional expense for the works, which provide remedy.
In conditions of irrigation these are performed after each watering. The
sprinkling watering has a more negative effect than in furrow watering. Soils do
not form this crust contain sand 60-80 %, dust 10-20 % and clay 5-10 %.
The main factor, which generates formation of crust on the cultivated
land, is the lack of soil particle formations stable in water and big amounts of
clay colloidal particles.
Cuvinte cheie: irigaŃie, crustă, sol, ameliorare
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA
APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR NITRATE TRANSFER
Approximation methods are widely used to obtain functions from
experimental data. Interpolation and approximation is appropriate to describe
nitrate solution movement in soil, when are known only a few data received
Cuvinte cheie: metode de interpolare, metode aproximative,
interpolare liniară, cubică spline sau polinomială
EXPERIMENTAL DATA ANALZSIS OF NITRATE
TRANSFER THROUGH SOIL USING MATLAB
This paper presents the analysis of nitrate transfer data using Matlab
and the information places at our disposal from articles. Experimental data are
post up as functions, and for analysis are used statistical methods.
Cuvinte cheie: metode statistice, concentraŃia nitraŃilor, programul
DESIGN STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF
CONTAMINATED SOIL SYSTEMS
This paper presents an integrated feasibility study on designing
systems for remediating petroleum-contaminated sites. Its consists of
components of site-condition investigation, multiphase multicomponent
transport modeling, remediation technology screening, and remediation-system
design. The developed system could help petroleum industries to reduce costs
at consulting, planning, design, and operation stages of their remediation
Cuvinte cheie: bioremediation, soil pollution, biological treatment
CURRENT STATE PROBLEMS IN RECOVERY OF WASTE
The implementation requirement of waste technologies and methods
in terms of waste recovery, leading to the degree of civilization in the world,
waste problems in relation to quality of life on environmental issues.
Cuvinte cheie: deseuri, revalorificare, management, Ńintǎ, valorificare,
poluare, reciclare, factori de mediu, depozitare
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSEMENT FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT
European Commission has adopted the concept of life cycle
assessment of a product or a process for waste management for sustainable
development. Life cycle assessment provides a structured framework and
methods for analyzing and assessing the environmental issues and the
potential impacts (both beneficial and detrimental) of a material, product or
service over the entire period of its life cycle.
Cuvinte cheie: evaluarea ciclului de viaŃă, deseuri
IMPACT OF COMPOSTING PROCESS ON
ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Composting of organic waste like other industrial process has negative
and positive effects on environment and public health.
The main negative effects are the emissions in air, unlikely smells,
noise, emission in water, heavy metals in soil. All of this could affect population.
The main positive effect is improvement and fertilization of soil which
increase the plants.
Cuvinte cheie: compost, apă, aer, sol, populaŃie
CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF POLYMERS
Excessive growth in recent years on the market of plastics materials
has increased the amount of wastes. Therefore, there were made a lot of
researches on plastics materials in order to establish an economically viable
method of recycling, with low environmental impact. A method that meets these
conditions and witch does not require any washing and separation of polymers
and/or waste materials based on these polymers, is the chemical recycling by
“pyrolysis”. By pyrolysis process, wastes are converted into liquid fractions
close to commercial fuels, in certain reaction conditions. The results obtained
are influenced by the temperature and catalysts that were used. The paper is a
review of literature data related to chemical recycling of polymers.
Cuvinte cheie: piroliză, reciclarea polimerilor, LDPE, HDPE, PP
ACID TAR – UTILISATION OR DISPOSAL?
This paper explores some ways for pre-treatment acid tar in the scope
its utilisation or disposal. Also, it presents some ways of utilisation. The authors
believe that the best utilisation is co-incineration in the cement industry.
Cuvinte cheie: gudron acid, tratare, valorificare, eliminare
Sustainability of buildings established environmental performance of
buildings, building life cycle, description products economic, performance
assessment of buildings, level social performance assessment of building.
Cuvinte cheie: durabilitate, construcŃie, clădire, performanŃă, mediu,
ciclu de viaŃă, evaluare, nivel social
PASSIVE HOUSE – ENERGY EFFICIENT
Passive house describes a building construction with a comfortable level
of indoor air quality in summer and winter that is gained by employing energy –
efficient measures and without conventional heating systems.
Cuvinte cheie: casă pasivă, casa viitorului, energie, eficienŃă,
termoizolaŃie, performanŃă termică, coeficient de transfer termic
THE BUILDINGS RADON IZOLATED
The surface earth rocks produce radon gas which emits in atmosphere
very fast. From atmosphere it can arrive in buildings in very dangerous
concentrations. Inside the buildings, the main radon source is the materials
under and around them. This paper shows how it has to action to reduce the
radon concentration inside the buildings.
Cuvinte cheie: radon, radioactivitate naturală, fisă de măsurare,
CONSTRUCTIVE SOLUTIONS AND ADVANCED
TECHNOLOGIES TO ACHIEVE GREENHOUSE
This paper presents constructive solutions, advanced technologies
and specific facilities to achieve modern greenhouses for forced culture of
vegetables and flowers, which can be done both in the conventional system
(with soil) as well as unconventional system (without soil); presents natural
environmental factors and microclimate factors, knowing that the plants depend
on these factors, as well as outlines of resistance structures with related
Cuvinte cheie: construcŃii de sere, structuri, elemente de închidere,
factori de mediu
EUROPEAN DESIGN – EUROCODE STANDARDS
The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for
everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of
both a traditional and an innovative nature.
Cuvinte cheie: eurocod, structură, proiectare, parametru, anexă
naŃională, implementare, strategie
ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS.
DIRECTIVES AND STANDARDS
Global warming has been emphasized in recent decades and this has
led to different actions to stop it. One of the measures is to increase the energy
efficiency of buildings.
This article presents the requirements of the council directive
2002/91/ce on the energy performance of buildings and also European
standards adopted by Romania. These standards support the legislation in this
field and provide an outline of the calculation procedure and technical
requirements. CEN is developing a technical report (TR) linking directive
2002/91/CE and correspondent European standards. This technical report,
prCEN/TR 15615:2008, is an „umbrella document‟ aimed at facilitating the
implementation of this directive in member states.
Cuvinte cheie: încălzire globală, energie, eficienŃă, performanŃă
energetică, legislaŃie, standarde
CONFORMITY EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTION
PRODUCTS FOR CE MARKING
This work shows the legal aspects to regard for the affixing of the CE
conformity marking, which provide the placing of construction products on the
European market. The harmonized standards or European technical approval is
technical specifications adopted for the purposes of the Directive Construction
Products. The essential requirements applicable to works which may influence
the technical characteristics of a product. One, some or all of these
requirements may apply and they shall be satisfied during an economically
reasonable working life.
Cuvinte cheie: construcŃii, produse de construcŃii, siguranŃa
construcŃiilor, cerinŃe, cerinŃe esenŃiale, standardizare, marcaj
SEISMIC BUILDING-STABILIZING GYROSCOPIC SYSTEM
This paper presents a technical approach for seismic risk reduction of
buildings problem. Using a gyroscopic system installed in the building
foundation, stabilizers increase compared seismic waves or wind. A study of
the reaction system was achieved through a simulation in Matlab environment.
The results showed a good response of the building structure in relation to
seismic energy discharge.
Cuvinte cheie: giroscop, seism, clădire, stabilizare
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
This paper presents some aspects regarding Home Electronic Systems
(HES), which are designed within the larger context of HBES (Home and
Building Electronic Systems) and are made to realize the automation of
Cuvinte cheie: HBES,Wi-Fi, DECT, Zig-Bee, domotică
THE REHABILITATION OF THE HISTORIC LOAD-BEARING
STRUCTURES “CASTLE OF GILAU”
A rehabilitation an intervention on a load-bearing structure, which
stops the deterioration of the historic load-bearing structures, maintaining their
present state: the geometrical-mechanical concept, the historic materials and
the traditional construction technologies (usually the interventions on a historic
load-bearing structure also entail consolidation works, not only the maintaining
of the present state, thus the term the conservation of a historic load-bearing
structure is rarely used). The conservation of the historic load-bearing
structures is related to: all those interventions which the present technical state
of the historic load-bearing structures. It is rehabilitation measure of great
importance; if it is adequately carried out, it can prevent the use of the other
much more extensive and expensive measures in the long run, especially in the
case of constructions with relatively constant functional parameters.
Cuvinte cheie:degradarea, conservarea si reabilitarea structurilor
portante istorice, studii de parament
THERMAL REHABILITATION OF OLD HOUSING
BLOCKS OF FLATS
The thermal insulation of old housing blocks was a new preoccupation
of our country along with entry on the EU. Each company, have performed new
materials and termosysteme in this field. This paper represents a short
overview on the impact of the thermal rehabilitation of the old housing blocks
and the new energy performance of the buildings. Also, it is presented the old
systems of insulation and the new proposal solutions for best results in energy
Cuvinte cheie: audit energetic, reabilitare termică, izolare termică
POTAISSA CASTRUM – CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
It is known that the ancient Romans are well-known during the time
due to the constructions that they realized. This paper wants to point out their
creativity and ability by presenting some techniques used to build the Potaissa
Cuvinte cheie: castru, fundaŃiile castrului, zidurile castrului, bolŃile
SEBEŞ – TIME USED
Sebes City falls into the category of the most important cities in
southwestern Transylvania and is located in the picturesque valley of Apold.
Area has been inhabited since ancient times. It shows briefly Sebes
development over time. Since the end of 2000 the official title Sebes obtained
from the city.
Therefore, Sebes city, both by its past and present, offers a case of
settlement in southern Transylvania, is found weave interweaving of civilization
and symbiosis nationalities (Romanian, Saxons, Hungarians, Roma etc.) which
also confers a distinct note of city which gives the city a distinct mark on the
banks of the river Sebes.
Keywords: Sebes, city, urban areas, populations of different
nationalities autonomous principality Austrian domination, population trends
Cuvinte cheie: Sebeş, municipiu, aşezare urbană, populaţii de diferite
naţionalităţi, principat autonom, dominaţie austriacă, evoluţia populaţiei
În abordarea la scară largă a provocărilor presante cu care se
confruntă societăţile actuale, situaţia critică a ingineriei este
recunoscută la nivel mondial. În încercarea de a contribui la înţelegerea
problemelor, prin luarea în considerare a provocărilor, dar şi a
oportunităţilor cu care se confruntă ingineria, cu un accent special pe
educaţie în contextul economiei globale şi al dezvoltării durabile, este
nevoie de o schimbare, dar schimbarea nu este niciodată uşoară, însă
este întotdeauna posibilă.
„Ei, inginerii, sunt cei care pregătesc vremurile de azi şi de
mâine” – menţiona, cu timp în urmă, I.G. Duca.
SEBEŞ 2011 – LOCUL DE ÎNTÂLNIRE AL INGINERILOR DE
PRETUTINDENI. Un titlu care a devenit lait motivul unei manifestări
ştiinţifice de prestigiu în arealul românesc. Un titlu ce consfinţeşte
contactele directe între ingineri, specialişti de diferite profesii,
efectuarea unui remarcabil şi însemnat schimb de idei, de rezultate şi
de păreri în diverse domenii inginereşti, întâmplări cu largi rezonanţe,
aflate la a XI-a ediţie.
Ingineria este o mare profesie. Inginerul este o lume reală
sau de vis, este miracol sau realitate, vis sau imaginaţie, teorie şi
practică, cultură şi tehnică, improvizaţie şi spirit de raţionament şi
de analiză. „Inginerul trebuie să aibă entuziasm, afecţiune, un pic de
romantism” spunea lingvistul român Iorgu Iordan. Spirit conciliant când
este vorba de interesele altuia, dar ferm şi dur când este vorba de
interesele, prestigiul sau realizările sale. Spirit deschis schimbărilor,
transigent/conciliant în ideile generale, dar intransigent şi flexibil în
ideile concrete. La rândul ei, ingineria este definită ca ştiinţa de a aplica
în practică descoperirile ştiinţifice pure precum matematica, fizica,
chimia, biologia etc.
INTERDISCIPLINARITY, A DOMINANT FEATURE
IN THE PROJECTS OF DORIN PAVEL
Interdisciplinary is a dominant feature common in the projects of Dorin
Pavel, whether they related to his base area, hydrology, or to the associated
equipment designed buildings, electrical applications, construction of bridges
It presents some significant elements and their contributions in making
some Romanian firsts.
Keywords: hydrology, equipment, interdisciplinary
Cuvinte cheie: hidrologie, echipamente, interdisciplinaritate
The Engineer Dorin Pavel, „the father” of the Romanian hydroenergetic,
has published in 1925, as Assistant Professor at Zürich Technical
University, an „Electrification Study”. The study was related to the Romanian
Railways and it was printed in the General Romanian Engineering Association
(AGIR) magazine. After analyzing different electrification systems in Europe
and not only, he concluded: „I’m not an enthusiastic of the single-phase Swiss
system, but I think that the most efficient way would be to transform the 50
cycles three-phase current into 50 cycles single-phase current”. What
clairvoyance! The Congress of Lille recommended only in 1955 to use 25 kV,
50 Hz in new railway electrification works. The study continues with a proposed
schedule to electrify the CFR network in three 8 years stages, with the first
section between Bucharest and Brasov. So it was, but 35 years later: the first
overhead pole was erected in Predeal station on December 27, 1960. The last
part of the study shows the necessary power supply, based mainly on the
Romanian hydro potential.
Keywords: Electrification, Romanian railways, network, hydraulics,
Cuvinte cheie: electrificare, căile ferate române, reţea, instalaţii
hidraulice, potenţial hidraulic
DORIN PAVEL AND VISUAL ARTS
Mioriţa Fountain is a monument in the capital, located on North Road,
Bucharest-Ploiesti, in the Folk Art Museum Dr. Nichols Minovici. In making the
Fountain Road Mioriţa contributed in 1927, her birth year, a formidable team:
sculptress Milita Petrascu, architect Octav Doicescu and Eng. Dorin Pavel. The
construction was executed by the architects Octav Doicescu plans, which is
decorated with mosaics, are made of Milita monument Petrascu. These
mosaics are an illustration of Mioriţa ballad, ballad name was borrowed for the
name of the monument. Besides Petrascu Milita, the fountain mosaic artist
worked and Mogoş Gheorghe Niculescu. Concept hydraulic engineering made
by Pavel Dorin engineer, was the blade of water and a fan-shaped permanent
pool of water recovery (basically only added what had evaporated), pool
surrounding the fountain.
Keywords: monument, fountain, Miorita mosaic illustrations, ballad,
hidrotehnică design, sheet of water, granite Dobrogea
Cuvinte cheie: monument, fântâna Mioriţa, mozaic, ilustraţii, balada,
concepţie hidrotehnică, pânză de apă, granit de Dobrogea
INGENIÉURS ET PROFESSEURS – PIONNIERS DE LA
FABRICATION DE TURBINES HYDRAULIQUES ET
GÉNÉRATEURS ÉLECTRIQUES EN ROUMANIE
On présente des grandes personnalités qui ont appuyé, initié, réalisé
et développé la fabrication de équipements hydrauénérgetiques en Roumanie.
Mots-clés: turbine hydraulique, groupe électrogène, de
Cuvinte cheie: turbină hidraulica, generator, centrala hidroelectrică
INGENIÉURS ET PROFESSEURS – PIONNIERS DE LA
FABRICATION DE TURBINES HYDRAULIQUES ET
GÉNÉRATEURS ÉLECTRIQUES EN ROUMANIE
On présente des grandes personnalités qui ont appuyé, initié, réalisé
et développé la fabrication de équipements hydrauénérgetiques en Roumanie.
Mots-clés: turbine hydraulique, groupe électrogène, de l’hydroélectricité
Cuvinte cheie: turbină hidraulică, generator, centrală hidroelectrică
PAS DU POÈTE ENTRE SILENCE ET MOT.
ESSAI SUR LUCIAN BLAGA
Lucien Blaga est revenu dans la conscience du public roumain et
notamment des écrivains après la parution, en 1962 de deux livres de poésies,
Poemele luminii et Mirabila sămânţă (il faut y souligner: éditions posthumes).
L’expressivité de son lyrisme, la sensibilité des images des rêveries cosmiques,
le paroxysme de ses états d’âme ont livré aux poètes des générations 60 et 70
les clefs d’un renouvellement esthétique nécessaire après la période
prolétcultiste. Certainement, au cours des apparitions des livres du poète de
Lancrăm, le public de culture, y compris les enseignants dans leur démarche à
la classe, ont compris l‘envergure d’une synthèse littéraire et philosophique
dans l’esprit de l’éthos roumain à l’époque d’entre les deux guerres.
ROMANIAN ACTUAL MAJOR OBJECTIVE
Statistical data and studies can explain the Romanian actual
economical situation. They can indicate the unique solution for increasing the
gross domestic product per capita GDP/capita and life level until at least the
medium UE level, continuously growing.
Romania has great natural wealth, and though it won numerous
medals at international exhibitions of inventions in Geneva, the EU has every
million inhabitants , the fewest international patents.
Keywords: Gross domestic product per capita, living standards, patent
Cuvinte cheie: produs intern brut pe cap de locuitor, nivel de trai, brevet
NUCLEAR ENERGY – PROS AND AGAINST – Part I
In January 2011, in 29 countries worldwide are operating 442 nuclear
reactors for electricity generation and 65 new nuclear plants are under
construction. In 2009, nuclear power plants in operation, have secured 14% of
world electricity production. Mainly, 16 countries rely on nuclear energy to
provide at least a quarter of their total electricity needed. Because high power
nuclear plants, waste products and the risks of using a nuclear reactor to make
a choice controversial, states with different attitudes regarding nuclear energy.
In Romania’s geographical area is under construction or design more Russian
nuclear reactors in the foreground, is deploying offensive Russian nuclear
attack: 12 reactors per 1,000 km of borders of Romania. After the disaster in
Japan, the future of nuclear energy is a subject of contention in many states,
and existing plants are subject to new safety testing in case of natural disaster.
The paper analyzes the situation of nuclear power in the world, noting
the advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: electricity, nuclear reactors, nuclear power, natural
disaster, Chernobyl, Fukushima, earthquake, tsunami
Cuvinte cheie: energie electrică, reactoare nucleare, centrale
nucleare, dezastru natural, Cernobîl, Fukushima, cutremur, tsunami
NUCLEAR ENERGY – PROS AND AGAINST – Part II
Undoubtedly, nuclear power will make a substantial contribution to
achieving sustainable electricity total. Many voices say nuclear energy: has fewer
emissions of pollutants, is effective, safe and soon it will reach the bottom of the
bag on oil, coal and gas. But nuclear plants do not operate simply clean. The
risks of nuclear power include: the risk of major accidents (like Chernobyl or the
Fukushima Daiichi), leakage of radioactive substances that can damage both the
environment and human health in the area, disposal of radioactive waste
resulting from the operation, the proliferation of nuclear weapons (in reactors use
natural uranium as fuel, as is the Cernavoda, it can produce plutonium used in
nuclear weapons, as happened in India in 1974 and later) etc.
Keywords: Chernobyl disaster, the disaster at Fukushima Daiichi,
Cuvinte cheie: dezastrul de la Cernobîl, catastrofa de la Fukushima
Daiichi, standarde, perspective
PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATING AND TRAINING IN THE
CREATIVE SPIRIT OF THE STUDENT YOUTH
We must gradually improve the organizational systems in order to
develop science, this means to improve the material base, to raise the quality of
teaching and increase the productivity in research work.
Keywords: youth, student, principles of education, science, technology
Cuvinte cheie: tineret studenţesc, principii de educare, ştiinţă,