Arhivă revistă


33-55 STUDIUL VIBRAȚIILOR APĂRUTE LA COLOANA DE DIRECȚIE A UNUI AUTOVEHICUL ÎN PROCESUL FRÂNĂRII

STUDY OF THE VEHICLE STEERING COLUMN
VIBRATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BRAKING
Noise, vibration and harshness are considered some of the biggest challenges that automotive engineers face in the industry and are one of the biggest customer warranty complaints. Automotive engineers work with the entire design team including materials, physicists and even electrical engineers to identify the location of noises within the braking system and find ways to eliminate vibration, reduce noise and friction.
Keywords: vibration, brake, harshness, road, vehicle
Cuvinte cheie: vibrații, frânare, disconfort, rutier, vehicul

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33-54 STUDIU ASUPRA UTILITZĂRII GIROSCOAPELOR CU MOMENT CONTROLAT PENTRU STABILIZAREA DINAMICII AUTOTURISMELOR

STUDY REGARDING THE USE OF CONTROL MOMENT GYROSCOPE FOR THE STABILIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE DYNAMICS
The application of gyroscopes in the naval and aerospace sectors has gained momentum during the Second World War, bringing these hitherto relatively obscure devices to the technological forefront from the area of experimental physics. The main application in these areas are gyrocompasses and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs).
The CMG is a relatively efficient torque generator and is based on the gyroscopic principle from physics (mechanics). As such, they are used to counteract the roll and pitch of seagoing vessels, a CMG of 100kg being able to generate a control-torque in the order of thousands of Nm.
The aim of this paper is to examine the possible application of CMGs on road going vehicles in order to improve comfort and stability.
Keywords: gyroscope, automotive dynamics, CMG, stability and confort
Cuvinte cheie: giroscop, dinamica autovehiculelor, GMC, confort si stabilitate

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33-53 DETERMINAREA PE CALE ANALITICĂ A FRECVENȚELOR DE VIBRAȚIE NATURALĂ A UNEI JANTE ȘI CERCETĂRI ALE ASPECTELOR LEGATE DE INFLUENȚA ACESTORA ASUPRA INTEGRITĂȚII STRUCTURII

ANALYTICAL DETERMINATION OF
NATURAL FREQUENCIES VIBRATION OF A RIM AND RESEARCH ON THE ASPECTS OF THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE STRUCTURE INTEGRITY
This scientific and technical paper, outlines the studies made on vibrations aspects in correlation with exploitation of a wheel rim. Rims are critical components of the vehicle wheel. The wheel is a device that enables efficient movement of an object across a surface by rotating itself on that surface. To find the natural frequencies and stiffness a model is designed using commercial software SOLIDWORKS and the factors are estimated by commercial analysis software ANSYS Workbench. The present work deals with analysis of an aluminium alloy wheel rim subjected to vertical load, air pressure, damping factor and stiffness of material under various condition are found(different centrifugal speeds that coresponds to different speeds of vehicle).
Keywords: rim, vibration, vehicle, frequencies, resonance
Cuvinte cheie: jantă, vibrație, vehicul, rezonanță

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33-52 STUDII ȘI CERCETĂRI CU PRIVIRE LA INFLUENȚA PRESIUNII DIN PNEURILE UNUI AUTOVEHICUL ASUPRA STABILITĂȚII ACESTUIA ȘI A ZGOMOTULUI ÎN RULARE

STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE IN A MOTOR VEHICLE’S TYRES ON ITS STABILITY AND ROLLING NOISE
This scientific paper aims to study the influence of inflation pressure on vehicle tires on maintaining good adhesion of vehicle wheels as it moves in turn. Effective monitoring of the vehicle’s behaviour in the winding process is done using a system composed of ultrasonic sensors and Arduino UNO Data Acquisition Plate, which provides data on longitudinal tilt of the vehicle during the tests. The research area in which this work can fall may be the discomfort caused to the driver of the vehicle and its occupants by the inclinations of the vehicle or the possible loss of adhesion suffered by the tires.
Keywords: discomfort, noise, vehicle, adhesion, safety
Cuvinte cheie: disconfort, zgomot, autovehicul, aderență, siguranță

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33-51 DETERMINAREA MIȘCĂRII CAROSERIEI UNUI AUTOVEHICUL ÎN TIMPUL EXPLOATĂRII PE DIFERITE TIPURI DE DRUM

DETERMINATION OF BODYWORK MOVEMENT OF A VEHICLE AT THE TIME OF EXPLOITATION ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROADS
In the course of the study, the body movements of a vehicle running on different types of road (ramp road, bumpy road, paved road with cubic stone) will be analyzed by designing a mathematical model of a motor vehicle using Matlab Simulink software.
Keywords: suspension system, body vehicle, types of roads, Matlab Simulink
Cuvinte cheie: suspensie, caroseria autovehiculului, tipuri de drum, Matlab Simulink

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33-50 ANALIZA PRIN ÎNCERCAREA RIGIDITĂȚII SUSPENSIEI CU ARCURI ELICOIDALE ȘI AMORTIZOARE HIDRAULICE ÎN CAZUL AUTOVEHICULULUI BMW E46 318D 115 CP 265 Nm LIMUZINA PE UN STAND CONTROLAT ELECTRONIC

ANALYZIS THROUGH TESTING OF SUSPENSION’S HARSHNESS WITH HELICAL SPRINGS AND HYDRAULIC DAMPERS IN THE CASE OF BMW E46 318D 115 HP 265 Nm LIMOUSINE MOTOR VEHICLE ON A ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED TEST BENCH
The present research work highlights the measurements made on suspension, vibrations and harshness aspects on BMW E46 318D vehicle limousine using an electronically controlled test bed. Many companies and laboratories seek pragmatically directed research in automotive fields and knowing such thing here is developed an experimental study on a real street car. In this case it is analyzed the behavior of suspension system concerning harshness, showing that the mass placement influences the suspension system behavior.
The problem of suspension influences is a serious one and the objective of the present study is to gain results and an insight of the oscillations damping process. The research methodology and specific objectives are oriented to bring the specific parameters and the research goal to open access.
Keywords: BMW 318d, harshness, suspension, vehicle, vibration
Cuvinte cheie: BMW 318d, rigiditate, suspensie, vehicul, vibrații

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33-49 STUDIUL INFLUENȚEI VOLANTEI CU MASĂ DUBLĂ ASUPRA REDUCERILOR VIBRAȚIILOR PRODUSE DE MOTOR

STUDIES OF THE INFLUENCE OF DUAL-MASS FLYWHEEL ON REDUCING THE VIBRATION OF THE ENGINE
Currently, engine designers have to downsize and down speed the engine in order to satisfy European requirements in terms of CO2 emissions. A simplified mathematical model (2 degrees of freedom) has been developed in order to show the positive effect of a Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) on the powertrain. The model contains two rotational masses, torsional stiffness and damping properties. The engine torque variation is simplified by a sin function. The system is solved in Matlab using Runge-Kutta formula. The calculations were performed in three different rpm’s.
Keywords: harshness, noise, flywheel, vehicle, vibration
Cuvinte cheie: disconfort, zgomot, volantă, vehicul, vibrații

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33-48 CERCETAREA SEMIOTICĂ A TREPIDAȚIILOR/ VIBRAȚIILOR ȘI A MERSULUI RALANTI NEREGULAT LA OPEL ZAFIRA

SEMIOTIC RESEARCH OF VIBRATIONS AND
IRREGULAR IDLE RUNING SYSTEM
FROM OPEL ZAFIRA
The semiotic research paper searches the causal factors, sequences and significant symptoms in diagnosis process of the vibrations and engine irregular idle running in the case of Opel Zafira. The symptoms, after some instalments were made, consisted in irregularly running, low level vibrations and communication errors. The main objective of the present research is to determine the causal factor for all the recorded symptoms during the abnormal operation. The present paper searches to solve or to discover the only problem of the power-train system because the engine runs irregularly abnormal in idle speed and presents some vibrations. The result is related to procedures done at some point in time on the auxiliary systems.
Keywords: automotive, diagnostics, Opel, vibrations, Zafira
Cuvinte cheie: autovehicul, diagnosticare, Opel, vibrații, Zafira

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33-47 CERCETĂRI PRIVITOARE LA ÎNCERCAREA RIGIDI-TĂȚII SUSPENSIEI CU AMORTIZOARE HIDRAULICE ÎN CAZUL AUTOVEHICULULUI BMW E46 320D 150 CP 320Nm LIMUZINA PE UN STAND CONTROLAT DIGITAL

RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE SUSPENSION’S HARSHNESS TESTING WITH HYDRAULIC DAMPERS IN THE CASE OF BMW E46 320D 150 CP 320NM LIMOUSINE MOTOR VEHICLE ON A DIGITAL CONTROLLED BENCH
This research paper outlines the tests made on suspension, vibrations and harshness aspects in correlation with BMW E46 320D motor vehicle limousine on a digital controlled testing bench. Economic units and workshops look positively toward utilitarian directed research from applied modules and academic activities (especially in automotive fields). Thus is the case with the characteristics of suspension system’s harshness when comes to the motor vehicles, specifically the BMW. Taking the problem seriously the aim of the present research paper and the targeted system is suspension and its harshness when tested in a specialized workshop. The research method and specific objectives are directed to reach these specific goals and the study expectations from academic community.
Keywords: BMW, harshness, suspension, vehicle, vibration
Cuvinte cheie: BMW, rigiditate, suspensie, vehicul, vibrații

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33-46 STUDIUL VIBRAȚIILOR AUTOVEHICULELOR LA RULAREA PE UN DRUM DE PIATRĂ CUBICĂ CU DIFERITE PRESIUNI ÎN PNEURI

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES OF THE VIBRATIONS ASPECTS ABOUT DRIVING ON CUBIC STONE ROAD WITH DIFFERENT TYRE PRESSURE
This scientific and technical paper outlines the studies made on vibrations aspects in correlation with exploitation of road vehicles. Professional forums and providers look kindly upon pragmatically oriented science from experimental applications and modules content (in specialty disciplines from research zone), being the same case with the characteristics of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) of vehicles in EU. In present paper, the content is about vibrations aspects about driving on cubic stone road with different tyre pressures.
Keywords: harshness, noise, road, vehicle, vibration
Cuvinte cheie: disconfort, zgomot, rutier, vehicul, vibrații

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33-45 STUDIUL PRIVIND VIBRAȚIILE MOTORULUI ÎN RAPORT CU TURAȚIA ACESTUIA LA AUTOVECHICULE RUTIERE

STUDY ON ENGINE VIBRATIONS RELATIVE TO ENGINE ROTATIONAL SPEED OF ROAD VEHICLES
The main concern of this paper is the analysis of mechanical vibrations produced in the engine compartment relative to the rotational speed and if there is discomfort felt in the passenger compartment of a road vehicle. Looking at the present day, automotive industry is very concerned with creating more powerful vehicles, that consume low fuel and are cheaper, but did they look at the harshness aspect of their vehicles? Considering this context, the paper will look further into the harshness factor of road vehicles that are produced under the compromise of low fuel efficiency, low cost, small and accessible.
Keywords: harshness, noise, road, vehicle, vibration
Cuvinte cheie: disconfort, zgomot, rutier, vehicul, vibrații

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33-44 CERCETAREA TURBO-SUFLANTEI CU AJUTORUL TESTĂRII ASISTATE DE CALCULATOR ÎN VEDEREA EVIDENȚIERII PERFORMANȚELOR

RESEARCHING THE TURBO-CHARGER WITH THE
OF COMPUTER AIDED TESTING IN ORDER
TO OUTLINE ITS PERFORMANCES
The present paper shows in specific technical concepts and methods from engineering perspective the problematic aspects concerning the turbocharger construction, problems and operation. After presenting the schematic construction and operation a testing sequence it’s considered. Analyzing the boost-pressure in relation with driving speed, engine temperature, engine speed and other parameters it allows the observer to gain the mathematical correlation between different working conditions. The development of present study aims to the stage of understanding and proper interpretation of the symptoms and problematic aspects related to the turbocharger and gas dynamics on Dacia Logan k9k792 Diesel engine.
Keywords: automotive, consumption, hydrocarbons, energy, on-board
Cuvinte cheie: automobilism, consum, hidrocarburi, energie, la bord

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33-43 CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A FUNCȚIONALITĂȚII SISTEMULUI ELECTRONIC DIESEL CONTROL (EDC) ÎN RAPORT CU SARCINA DE LA MOTORUL N47 DE LA AUTOMOBILUL BMW 320D (E90) LA TEMPERATURĂ ȘI TURAȚIE CONSTANTĂ

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF ELECTRONIC DIESEL CONTROL (EDC) SYSTEM OPERATION IN RELATION WITH N47 ENGINE LOAD FROM BMW 320D (E90) AUTOMOBILE
AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURE AND SPEED
The present experimental paper evaluates, with the latest applications in the field, the operational parameters regarding accelerator pedal position and voltage from its sensors. There are no studies related to this specific topic concerning the electronic diesel control and other operating parameters of the N47 engine in the BMW 320d known as model E90. Today are many similar vehicles on the roads in our country.
The load control influences the electronic diesel control module regarding the power, energy efficiency and pollution. Analysing the electronic control commands of the diesel engine from BMW offers a possibility to improve fuel economy, as well as other related performances.
This experimental research is conducted while testing the electronic accelerator through diesel control module to acquire practical data. The real values are recorded, on total range and then discussed upon.
Keywords: accelerator, BMW, Diesel Control, E90, N47
Cuvinte cheie: accelerator, BMW, Diesel Control, E90, N47

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33-42 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A SISTEMULUI DE FRÂNARE DE LA BMW SERIA 3

CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF BRAKING SYSTEM FROM BMW 3 SERIES
The present work makes an endeavor in the experimental testing procedures on the security and maximum forces developed by the braking system from BMW 3 series. Using the brake tester there were determined the maximum forces on each wheel of every axle in order to outline the braking efficiency. The importance for monitoring the braking forces at different wheels and axles consists in the effect that these forces have on the security of road travels and on the possibility of controlling their value. Further improvement of the testing considers the vehicle load.
Keywords: BMW, brakes, testing, safety, system
Cuvinte cheie: BMW, frâne, încercare, siguranță, sistem

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33-41 CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ PRIVIND DIAGNOSTICAREA MOTORULUI 1,0 i DE LA OPEL AGILA

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING
DIAGNOSIS OF 1.0 i ENGINE FROM OPEL AGILA
The research paper makes an endeavor in applied part of the protocol for testing oxygen sensor strategies in the auxiliary system of 1.0 i engine from Opel Agila. Spark ignited engines are more likely to be seen on the roads event in the following years due to their compact size and versatility. They are very appealing due to their simplicity and easy to use. They are also cheaper than diesel engines and less pollutant when it comes to evaluate particles and smoke. The studied vehicle had some problems with the oxygen sensor. It was replaced but ”check engine” light on-board still turns on. The problem was defined and the electrical circuit inspected and the fault terminated successfully.
Keywords: automotive, diagnostics, feed-back, oxygen, sensor
Cuvinte cheie: autovehicul, diagnosticare, buclă reacție, oxigen, senzor

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33-40 CONTRIBUTII LA DIAGNOSTICAREA MOTORULUI CU APRINDERE PRIN SCÂNTEIE DE 75 KW E36 DE LA BMW 316i

CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIAGNOSIS OF SPARK IGNITED ENGINE OF 75 KW E36 FROM BMW 316i
The present experimental research shows methods and engineering aspects concerning measuring the load signal and throttle valve operation in a diagnosis procedure for determining the problem of engine speed oscillation. Throttle valve potentiometer signal can be a proper technical data determined for operational diagnosis of the engine in some cases. That is why in this experimental paper it was experimentally determined in order to make a proper interpretation of the errors and technical problems which led to engine speed oscillation and incorrect operation. The motor vehicle was brought into the diagnosis laboratory and it was properly inspected for electric and electronic faults by using KTS and other digital equipment. In particular it was studied the oxygen sensor operation, the air mass flow meter and the throttle valve actuator (by measuring its voltage on the inherent potentiometer). The electrical schematic was also studied in order to locate the important components.
Keywords: automotive, BMW, consumption, diagnosis, on-board
Cuvinte cheie: automobilism, consum, diagnoză, la bord

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33-39 CONTRIBUȚII EXPERIMENTALE LA DIAGNOSTICAREA MOTORULUI 1,9 TDI DE LA VW VENTO

EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIAGNOSIS
OF 1.9 TDI ENGINE FROM VW VENTO
The present paper offers an experimental contribution to the research of methods and strategies concerning the fuel consumption and injected quantity in the case of 1.9 TDI engine from VW Vento. It is an opportunity to study and document some aspects regarding the fuel quantity injected and how it may be optimized in experimental conditions in order to reach lower specific consumption, improved engine energy efficiency and even lower pollution. In the present paper is shown that the small intervention on the fuel injection pump may offer a significant change in spray quantity and further more influencing the overall consumption and efficiency. Finally the engine was optimized and the fuel injected quantity correlated with the operating regime in order to improve operational efficiency.
Keywords: automobile, fuel, consumption, diagnostics, on-board
Cuvinte cheie: automobil, combustibil, consum, diagnosticare, la bord

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33-38 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A SIMPTOMELOR PROBLEMATICE ALE SISTEMULUI COMMON-RAIL DELPHI DE LA MOTORUL 1.5 DCI K9K792 DE LOGAN DACIA-RENAULT

CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROBLEMATIC SIMPTOMS OF THE COMMONRAIL DELPHI SYSTEM FROM THE 1.5 DCI K9K792 ENGINE OF DACIA-RENAULT LOGAN
The experimental research paper shows the elements and important values in applied study of the injection system testing in the case of 1.5 dCi engine from Dacia Logan. Compression ignited engines are more economically efficient due to their higher compression ratio and injection procedure. They are very attractive due to their fuel efficiency. They are also more expensive than gasoline engines and more pollutant concerning the particles and exhausted smoke. The monitored car had some problems with the injection system (control unit, high pressure pump and injectors). Some components were replaced but ”on-board light” still turns on from time to time indicating errors in injection assembly. The symptoms were grouped and the electrical circuit closely inspected and the faults were repeatedly identified.
Keywords: automobile, diagnostics, Delphi, diesel, injection
Cuvinte cheie: automobil, diagnosticare, Delphi, diesel, injecție

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33-37 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALA A SPECTRULUI TERMODISTRIBUȚIEI PE SISTEMELE AUXILIARE ALE MOTORULUI DE FORD 1.6 L IN LABORATORUL TESTECOCEL

CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THERMODISTRIBUTION SPECTRUM ON THE AUXILIARY SYSTEMS OF THE FORD 1.6 L
ENGINE IN TESTECOCEL LABORATORY
The present work follows an endeavor in the experimental testing procedures on the thermal management and heat distribution spectrum in auxiliary systems of spark ignited engine from Ford. Using the thermal camera there were determined the peak temperatures on the engine and exhaust system. Main objective of the paper is to show by thermal vision how heat spectrum is covering the critical components. The importance of monitoring the thermo-distribution spectrum at different levels and components from auxiliary systems consists in the fact that the heat and peak temperatures have an influence on the performance and on the catalyst de-clogging. Further improvement of the measurements and testing are considered by implementing more bio-ethanol in fuel supply system.
Keywords: exhaust, Ford, testing, thermal-vision
Cuvinte cheie: evacuare, Ford, încercare, termo-viziune

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33-36 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA PROCEDURII DE VERIFICARE A INJECTOARELOR COMMON-RAIL ÎN CAZUL MOTORULUI 1.8 TDCI DE LA FORD FOCUS   Recently updated !

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE RESEARCH OF INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR THE COMMON-RAIL INJECTORS IN THE CASE OF 1.8 TDCI ENGINE FROM FORD FOCUS
The present research work develops a practical procedure of inspection sequence for the case of injectors and injection system as a whole to sketch the important steps required. Construction and operational analyze is also important as well as engine control parameters, main injection, temperature and symptomatic behavior, in specific conditions, but here it’s most highlighted the inspection procedure. By using injector monitoring equipment connected to the electronic control unit of the engine via digital interface. Thus are pointed out the fuel amount, fuel pressure and the injector behavior from the Ford Focus engine (1.8 TDCi Turnier/DNW/85.0 kW) with common-rail injection system. Significance and opportunity for inspecting the injectors from Ford Focus 1.8 TDCI is based on recurrence of the symptoms regarding power loss and engine problems in operation. Realizing the present paper leads to a goal of highlighting a problem related to the fuel system components as injectors from the common-rail compression ignited engine in particular working conditions.
Keywords: common-rail, Diesel, Ford-Focus, fuel, injection
Cuvinte cheie: common-rail, Diesel, Ford-Focus, motorină, injecție

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33-35 STUDIUL POSIBILITĂȚII DE IMPLEMENTARE A EVALUĂRII ASISTATE DE CALCULATOR ÎN ANALIZA INJECTOARELOR COMMON-RAIL DELPHI

STUDY OF IMPLEMENTING POSSIBILITY FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED EVALUATION IN ANALYZING COMMON-RAIL DELPHI INJECTORS
The present applied research shows in usual technical terms and engineering methods from experimental computer aided evaluation some tips and results in injector analyze and testing. After designing a new method for computer aided evaluation of the Delphi injectors some results were acquired. Analyzing the injection system and fuel amount in exploitation conditions allows the researcher to gain some important insight in the defining the problems with operating state of each component. The research development aims toward the problem of easy and rapid evaluation of the injector’s symptoms and operational aspects related to the regime and Delphi management systems on vehicles.
Keywords: automotive, consumption, Delphi, injector, spray
Cuvinte cheie: automobilism, consum, Delphi, injector, pulverizare

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33-34 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A SPECTRULUI DE ZGOMOT LA MOTORUL 1.6 L DE FORD ÎN LABORATORUL TESTECOCEL CU TEHNICI AVANSATE ÎN INGINERIA AUTOVEHICULELOR

CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF NOISE SPECTRUM ON THE 1.6 L FORD ENGINE IN TESTECOCEL LABORATORY WITH ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
The present paper develops a research plan and specialized protocols in the noise determination process on the spark ignited engine with 1.6 liters displacement installed in TESTECOCEL laboratory. The high-tech equipment and test-bed allows researchers to measure a wide span of parameters in operation while simulating in real time some drive maneuvers. During this sequence beside many other determinations there were recorded some actual values concerning engine noise emissions at different crankshaft speeds. The importance for monitoring the noise level at different operating regimes consists in the effect that sounds has on the living beings, on the environment and even upon the road travel security. Further tests and improvements of the noise control are also considered in the engine operation and study.
Keywords: Ford, engine, sound, noise, Testecocel
Cuvinte cheie: Ford, motor, sunet, zgomot, Testecocel

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33-33 CONTRIBUȚII LA CERCETAREA APLICATIVĂ A SISTEMULUI DE PORNIRE DE LA DACIA LOGAN ÎN VEDEREA EVIDENȚIERII ASPECTELOR SIMPTOMATICE

CONTRIBUTIONS TO APPLIED RESEARCH OF THE START SYSTEM FROM DACIA LOGAN IN ORDER TO OUTLINE
THE SIMPTOMATIC ASPECTS
The present study outlines the problems which may appear with the starter system in the case of vehicles in exploitation. After many starting procedures the starter motor wear out and doesn’t work properly, making the vehicle use and pre-operation sequences more and more difficult. The worst case scenario is when starter stops suddenly in the middle of a junction without symptoms and as an aggravating aspect with impossibility to restart immediately. Analyzing the starting system and complex assembly of components allows the engineers to obtain some significant knowledge in the intricate character of optimal functionality in order to develop proper know-how and skills in repairing the system or solving the problem once it has appeared. The development of present work has the purpose to define the starting system and the methods for saving energy and time in the process of application or switching the engine’s turn on procedures. The paper experimental part points out some of the significant symptoms and problems related to the electric starter motor and internal combustion engine starting system on Dacia Logan sedan.
Keywords: automation, electro-mechanics, electromotor, i.c.e., starter
Cuvinte cheie: automatizare, electromecanică, electromotor, m.a.i., pornire

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33-32 OPTIMIZAREA ACTIVITĂȚILOR MOTRICE DE BAZĂ LA ELEVII DIN GIMNAZIU

OPTIMIZATION OF BASES MOTOR ACTIVITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL TO STUDENTS The current education system offers concrete possibilities for teacher autonomy, helping children. Knowing them, taking into account their psycho-motric possibilities, endowing the material base, the teacher develops the educational offer. The teacher should stimulate participation in physical education classes; make school physical education more interesting, attractive and effective. Through the didactic approach and efforts to ensure an optimal material-didactic basis, the teacher has to attract the pupils into movement, they will be aware that they have to move, know how to play, observe the rules in the games, so that they know the benefits of the movement. This article highlights the possibility of developing these motor skills in children.

Keywords: physical education, driving activities, skill, optimization methods

Cuvinte cheie: educație fizică, activități motrice, îndemânare, metode de optimizare

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33-31 OPTIMIZAREA ACTIVITĂȚILOR MOTRICE LA ELEVII DIN GIMNAZIU

OPTIMIZATION OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL TO STUDENTS The current education system offers concrete possibilities for teacher autonomy, helping children. Knowing them, taking into account their psycho-motric possibilities, endowing the material base, the teacher develops the educational offer. The teacher should stimulate participation in physical education classes; make school physical education more interesting, attractive and effective. Through the didactic approach and efforts to ensure an optimal material-didactic basis, the teacher has to attract the pupils into movement, they will be aware that they have to move, know how to play, observe the rules in the games, so that they know the benefits of the movement. This article highlights the possibility of developing these motor skills in children

Keywords: physical education, driving activities, speed, optimization methods

Cuvinte cheie: educație fizică, activități motrice, viteză, metode de optimizare

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33-30 VALENȚELE ACTIVIZATOARE ALE ABORDĂRII INTEGRATE LA CICLUL PRIMAR

THE ACTIVATOR VALANCES OF INTEGRATED
APPROACH TO THE PRIMARY SCHOOL
“The master argument for curricular integration is simply that life is not divided into subjects”. (James Moffett). One of the goals of the 21st century’s education is to bring school closer to real life, while placing the focus on building transferable competences, useful for students’ personal and social development. To integrate means to make connections, to coordinate, to blend, so that the final result reflects harmoniously the various components and provides a holistic vision of the topic of study. The interdisciplinary approach to education crosses the barriers of individual fields of study, and the contribution of each subject is paramount for a unitary perspective over any proposed theme. Integrated teaching and learning are prerequisites for the development of personalities perfectly adaptable to today’s society.
Key words: integrated approach, integration, active learning, metacognition
Cuvinte cheie: abordare integrată, integrare, învățare activă, metacogniție

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33-29 STRATEGII METODOLOGICE ACTIVIZANTE ÎN ÎNVĂȚAREA ACTIVĂ

STRATÉGIES MÉTHODOLOGIQUES STIMULANTES
DANS L’APPRENTISSAGE ACTIF
L’apprentissage constitue un acte social qui conduit à la transformation des représentations mentales des individus. Depuis quelques décennies même, les spécialistes dans la formation humaine affirmaient que l’utilisation seule d’une pédagogie transmissive conventionnelle (exposé, conférence, etc.) orientée de préférence vers la quantité de connaissances, mène souvent à l’échec. Il est souhaitable d’adopter des stratégies didactiques orientées vers l’élève, qui tiennent compte des acquisitions et des expériences de chacun, de manière à réussir à former des compétences désirables à une bonne insertion sociale. L’approche euristique, l’apprentissage par découverte et l’apprentissage par résolution de problèmes représentent seulement quelques stratégies méthodologiques stimulantes qui constituent le thème de notre article. Celles-ci rendent le processus instructif-éducatif plus efficace et plus flexible, et l’apprentissage beaucoup plus durable.
Mots clés: approche euristique, apprentissage actif, apprentissage par découverte, apprentissage par résolution de problèmes
Cuvinte cheie: abordarea euristică, învățarea activă, învățarea prin descoperire, problematizarea

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33-28 UTILIZAREA METODEI PROIECTULUI ÎN PREDAREA DISCIPLINELOR TEHNICE

USING PROJECT METHOD TEACHING TEHNICAL SUBJECTS This paper presents project method in teaching the technical subjects. The project is an active form, that involves and encourages transfer of knowledge, skills, and capabilities, facilitate and require interdisciplinary approaches, and strengthening social skills of students. It is particularly useful when the teacher aims at emphasizing practicality/practical learning and building bridges between theoretical discourse and life experience of the students.

Keywords: method, the project method, education

Cuvinte cheie: metodă, metoda proiectului, învățământ

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33-27 A NEW METHOD OF EYELID DETECTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM

O NOUĂ METODĂ DE DETECTARE A PLEOAPELOR
PENTRU SISTEMUL DE RECUNOAȘTERE A IRISULUI
This paper presents a new method for detecting the upper and lower eyelids. The method is called Refine-Connect-Smooth (R-C-S). It consists of three algorithms, Canny edge detector, Refine Edge Map (REM) and Connect and Smooth Edges (CSE). The algorithm is applied after the iris extraction stage therefore any incorrect detection of the eyelid will not decrease the accuracy of iris localization. The application of the method to CASIA database images version-1.0 has shown reasonable accuracy compared to previous methods of eyelid detection. For upper eyelid the accuracy reached 87.3%, while for lower eyelid the accuracy reached 99.2%.
Keywords: iris recognition system, biometric measurement system, eyelid detection, eyelash detection, iris localization, iris boundary detection

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33-26 INSTRUIREA ASISTATĂ DE CALCULATOR UTILIZATĂ ÎN PREDARE ŞI EVALUARE

E-LEARNING USED IN TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT Using computers as an educational teaching process in the act of teaching and learning, affecting both, the teacher teaching and learning activities of students. Pedagogical issues related to this aspect is contained in formulas of this type of computer assisted instruction and computer assisted learning. The two aspects, instruction and learning are in fact correlative first it aims mainly the teacher, the second, the student. In a speech condensed we could say that CBT is the way in which interaction between teaching and the learning of teachers and students, is mediated by the presence of the computer, considered as auxiliary technical, intended to increase and optimize teaching positions, work reception and information retrieval teaching by students.

Key words: computer, computer teaching methods, assessment methods, educational software

Cuvinte cheie: calculator, metode de predare cu ajutorul calculatorului, metode de evaluare, softuri educaționale

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33-25 O PERSPECTIVĂ PSIHOLOGICĂ ASUPRA INSTRUIRII ȘI ÎNVĂȚĂRII ACTIVE

UNE PERSPECTIVE PSYCHOLOGIQUE SUR
L’INSTRUCTION ET L’APPRENTISSAGE ACTIF
A partir du XXe siècle, de nombreux chercheurs se sont posé des questions sur le processus d’apprentissage. Ce processus a représenté une des préoccupations majeures de l’homme tout au long de son existence, qui a essayé pas seulement à apprendre, mais aussi à comprendre comment doit-il apprendre. Le syntagme «la théorie de l’apprentissage» définit un ensemble de lois ou de principes qui décrivent et expliquent la manière dont l’apprentissage se produit. Tout le monde a entendu parler de Pavlov et de son chien, et la plus grande majorité du corps didactique a pris connaissance des études et recherches réalisées par Piaget sur le développement ontogénétique de l’enfant et de l’adolescent. De nos jours, les théories cognitives et constructivistes, assez connues par les enseignants, ne se concrétisent pas toujours dans le curriculum éducationnel, l’enseignement, et surtout l’évaluation, restant tributaires au béhaviorisme.
Mots clés: cognitivisme, constructivisme, constructivisme cognitif, constructivisme social, instruction active, apprentissage actif
Cuvinte cheie: cognitivism, constructivism, constructivism cognitiv, constructivism social, instruire activă, învățare activă

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33-24 INFLUENȚA DEZVOLTĂRII MEDIULUI ONLINE ASUPRA MARKETINGULUI

INFLUENCE ON DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT ONLINE MARKETING With the rapid growth of Internet usage, the popularity of personal computers, phones and their use throughout the world have as marketers seek the best ways to use information technology to increase profitability. Marketers want to understand what technology to their business strategies and of their time-tested concepts will be improved through the internet, databases, mobile devices and other wireless technologies.

Keywords: concept of marketing, internet, online marketing, types of online commerce

Cuvinte cheie: conceptul de marketing, internet, marketingul on-line, tipuri de comerț online

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33-23 TRANSFORMĂRILE MARKETINGULUI ÎN RAPORT CU EVOLUȚIA TEHNOLOGICĂ

TRANSFORMATION IN RELATION TO DEVELOPMENT MARKETING TECHNOLOGY The paper highlights the rapidly changing economic environment and competition from increasingly greater with the development of computers and technology have led to a substantial change in marketing from one period to another has resulted in several types marketing.Because of this, experts in the field of marketing have defined three stages depending on how it has evolved over time, they called Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0 Marketing 4.0 Marketing 3.0 and later.

Keywords: Marketing concept, Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 4.0, Marketing 3.0

Cuvinte cheie: conceptul de marketing, Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 4.0, Marketing 3.0

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33-22 ISTORICUL AMENAJĂRII COMPLEXE A RÂULUI BÂRZAVA

THE HISTORY OF THE HYDROTECHNICAL
SYSTEM ON THE BÂRZAVA RIVER
The increased number of floods and low flows during droughts on, imposed the need for improvement the Bârzava river upstream of the town of Reșita. Several reservoirs were made to regulate debits, such as: Klaus, Văliug, Gozna and Secu. From the work done, the Văliug reservoir is the oldest reservoir in operation that exceeded the rated lifetime, which proves that these works were well sized, exploited and maintained without requiring repair.
Keywords: history, hydro technical system, regularizing debits, Văliug reservoir, hydropower system, Bârzava river
Cuvinte cheie: istoria, sistem hidrotehnic, regularizarea debitelor, acumularea Văliug, amenajare hidroenergetică, râul Bârzava

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33-20 MAŞINI DE TOPIT ZĂPADA

SNOW MELTING MACHINES
In the first part of the paper, is presented a new category of technological equipments used to remove the fallen snow on the public urban spaces such as parking, airport runways, public roads and private spaces. It shows the principle of operation, structure and performance of such equipments, currently called snow melter., Actually, this machines are an alternative to the classic snow removal solution by transporting it to predestined locations, usually at long distances, which offers certain advantages, especially in terms of speed of decongestion of traffic, and for the environment because the removal of snow beeing an ecological process.
Keywords: snowmobiles, mobile snowmobiles, stationary snowmobiles, urban snowmobiles, self-propelled snowmobiles, trailed snowmobiles
Cuvinte cheie: topitoare de zăpadă, topitoare mobile de zăpadă, topitoare staţionare de zăpadă, topitoare urbane de zăpadă, topitoare de zăpadă autopropulsate, topitoare de zăpadă tractate

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33-19 HAINE INTELIGENTE

SMART CLOTHING
This paper presents the technology of sensors implementation in the smart clothing and new switching paradigme between the social utility of this concept and the loss human liberties. In these days is present phenomenon of increasing the social interest in the technological implementation involved in the smart clothing area, this interest overcoming the apetit in the communication electronics technology.
Keywords: sensor, smart, area, technology
Cuvinte cheie: senzor, inteligent, domeniu, tehnologie

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33-18 O PARADIGMĂ ENERGETICĂ

AN ENERGY PARADIGM
The way the energy issue is raised in the modern world involves both science, engineering (as applied science), economics (even politics), sociology and futurology. Current approaches are made on multiple planes, evolving alternately and concerted at the same time, implying an evolution of humanity that is hard to predict.
Keywords: energy, photovoltaic device, renewable, storage
Cuvinte cheie: energie, element fotovoltaic, regenerabil, stocare

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33-17 COMPUTERUL CUANTIC

QUANTUM COMPUTER
Quantum computers will soon become an active presence in society, but not as most people imagine. We will not see quantum computers on the desk, replacing ordinary PCs, nor incorporated into gadgets similar to current tablets, mobile phones, and so on. Due to the need to ensure extremely low temperatures for their operation, at least in the near future and the environment, we will return to the concept of Computing Center that has been in existence for several decades.
Keywords: quantum system, qubit, ion trap, entanglement
Cuvinte cheie: sistem cuantic, qubit, capcană de ioni, entanglement

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33-16 PORȚI CUANTICE

QUANTUM GATES
Classic logic gates are not reversible in the sense that after a logical operation, it is not possible to reconstitute the input states of the recorded output. For this reason, it is considered that the classical computation process is one with increasing entropy (loss of information), which, together with well-known classical physical thermodynamics, will introduce a new field of study, referring to the so-called information thermodynamics.
Keywords: quantum gate, qubit, informational thermodynamics
Cuvinte cheie: poartă cuantică, qubit, termodinamică informațională

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33-8 CINE ȘI DE CE A DISTRUS INDUSTRIA ROMÂNEASCĂ DE CONSTRUCȚII? Autor: Ionel

Cei care am trăit și pe vremea comunismului, știm, din proprie experiență, cu ce lipsuri ne-am confruntat atunci. Era, totuși, ceva ce mergea ceas în acea perioadă: construcțiile. Mi-ar trebui nu o jumătate de pagină, ci câteva reviste ca să enumăr ce s-a construit în România între 1950 și 1990.

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33-6 FRUCTIFICAREA INVENTIVITĂŢII TEHNICE

LEVERAGING TECHNICAL INGENUITY THEY
Prosperity and the level of economic development of a country (as expressed through the annual gross domestic product per capita-GDP/place), I increase the sustainable and accelerated by mobilizing and leveraging international best technical ingenuity they the country’s population (expressed through specific annual number of patents, i.e. the number of international patents for invention obtained relative to the number of inhabitants of the country). The work of updating the data aspects of the situation in this area, with respect to Romania.
Keywords: GDP-place, innovation, necessary measures
Cuvinte cheie: PIB-loc, inovaţie, măsuri necesare

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33-5 TRANZIȚIA LA STANDARDELE DE MANAGEMENT ISO EDIȚIA 2015 – OPORTUNITATE PENTRU CREȘTEREA COMPETITIVITĂȚII FIRMELOR ROMÂNEȘTI (II)

TRANSITION TO ISSUE MANAGEMENT STANDARDS ISO 2015 – OPPORTUNITY TO ENHANCE COMPETI-TIVENESS ROMANIAN COMPANIES (II)
The article examines a sample of 45 organizations, elements of the transition to the new 2015 edition of ISO 9001 and 14001, a transition that began practically in January 2016 and finalized in September 2018. The trend of the six-month evolution and the causes of the differences are analysed. There are assessments of the way in which the practices suggested, ago a year, in the article with the same title have been implemented. Conclusions formulated are useful to managers interested in the efficiency of management systems
Keywords: transition to new management standards, best practices
Cuvinte cheie: tranziția la noile standarde de management, bune practici

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33-4 OCTOMBRIE 2018, 20 DE ANI DE LA ÎNFIINȚAREA ASOCIAȚIEI DE STANDARDIZARE DIN ROMÂNIA – ASRO

OCTOBER 2018, 20 YEARS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF THE ROMANIAN STANDARDIZATION
ASSOCIATION – ASRO
The beginnings of standardization in Romania date from the period preceding the Second World War, the first national standards being adopted in 1937-1938 within the General Association of Engineers of Romania – AGIR. The Military Circle in Bucharest, October 2, 1998. According to Government Ordinance no. 39/1998 (as amended by GO no. 44/27 July 1998), on this date was held the General Assembly for the establishment of the Association of Standardization in Romania – ASRO, a legal entity of private law, with a legal status of a non-lucrative association, on the basis of Law no. 21/1924, the association comprising 106 founding members.
Through this institutional reform in national standardization, alignment with European norms has been achieved, transferring the responsibilities in the field to those who are the main beneficiaries of this activity.
Some aspects of Law no. 163/2015 of 24/06/2015 on national standardization, ASRO affiliation to international and European standardization bodies, composition and organization chart of the association. The stages of achieving a standard are briefly outlined.
Keywords: standardization, short history, Romanian Standardization Association – ASRO, national standardization body, attributions, achievement of a standard
Cuvinte cheie: standardizare, scurt istoric, Asociaţia de Standardizare din România – ASRO, organismul naţional de standardizare, atribuții, realizarea unui standard

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33-3 ENTROPIA ȘI ACTIVITATEA UMANĂ

ENTROPIATION AND HUMAN ACTIVITY
The universe can be seen as a complex thermodynamic system, build from a lots of small or bigger thermodynamic systems. Generally the greatest urbane throngs are characterized by a large number of motor vehicles. The lots of motor vehicles from the big cities can be seen as a thermodynamic system which interferes with the environing system. This interaction vehicle-environment and other systems interaction which generates energy-environment are discussed on the base of entropy in this paper.
Keywords: thermodynamics, entropy, second law of the thermodynamic
Cuvinte cheie: termodinamică, entropie,schimb de căldură

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33-2 INGINERUL CAROL LUDOVIC LUPȘIASCA (07.06.1935 – 28.03.2018) – PIONIER ȘI MAESTRU AL CONCEPȚIEI DE TURBINE HIDRAULICE TIP FRANCIS LA REȘIȚA

ENGINEER CAROL LUDOVIC LUPȘIASCA (07.06.1936 –28.03.2018) – PIONEER AND MASTER OF FRANCIS HYDRAULIC TURBINE CONSTRUCTION IN REȘIŢA
Carol Ludovic Lupșiasca, remarkable personality, had an important contribution in the cultural life of the city Reșiţa. Author of many Francis hydraulic turbine projects, techno-scientific and history of Banat industry works, active violonist, hiking and photography lover, has contributed to the revitalization of German culture in Banat.
Keywords: projects, Francis turbines,german culture
Cuvinte-cheie: proiecte, turbine Francis, cultura germană

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32-101 TEZE DE DOCTORAT – Sinteze –

Dr. Ing. Alin-Cosmin TOT
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ NAPOCA
24 august 2015
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI ASUPRA POLUANTULUI SONOR PRODUS DE SURSE LINIARE, CU DIMINUAREA ACESTORA PRIN FOLOSIREA MATERIALELOR FONOABSORBANTE
Cuvinte cheie: poluare sonoră, surse liniare, protecţie fonică, materiale fonoabsorbante
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Ing. Marinel CÎMPAN
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
16 aprilie 2016
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI DE MENTENANŢA UTILAJELOR PE PLATFORMELE DE EXPLOATARE PETROLIERĂ
Cuvinte cheie: mentenanţa utilajelor, staţie cogenerativă, termografiere, boroscopare, sisteme de diagnoză, monitorizare
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Ing. Ionela Lavinia LĂPUŞAN
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
16 aprilie 2016
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA FONICĂ ÎN MEDIUL INDUSTRIAL
Cuvinte cheie: poluarea sonoră, mediu industrial, mǎsurǎtori experimentale, simularea propagǎrii, evaluare fonicǎ
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Ing. Raul Ştefan FODOR
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
24 septembrie 2016
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND VIBRAŢIILE MECANICE, CU ACŢIUNE ASUPRA ORGANISMULUI UMAN, PENTRU FORTIFICAREA ACESTUIA
Cuvinte cheie: vibraţii mecanice, organismul uman, fortificare prin vibraţii
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Kinet. Sergiu-Dan VESCAN
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
24 septembrie 2016
Titlul tezei: CONTRIBUŢII LA STUDIUL VIBRAŢIILOR ASUPRA ORGANISMULUI UMAN DIN PUNCT DE VEDERE TERAPEUTIC
Cuvinte cheie: vibraţii mecanice, organismul uman, terapie prin vibraţii
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Ing. Andrei Octavian TRITEAN
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
30 septembrie 2016
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA SONORĂ ÎN TRANSPORTURI
Cuvinte cheie: poluare sonoră, vibraţii mecanice, organismul uman, mijloace de transport grele
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

Dr. Ing. Ovidiu-Ioan VULCU
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICĂ DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA
30 septembrie 2016
Titlul tezei: STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND MENTENANŢA MIJLOACELOR DE TRANSPORT
Cuvinte cheie: mentenanţa în transporturi, vibraţii mecanice, vehicule de transport persoane
Conducător ştiinţific: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mariana ARGHIR – UTCN

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32-100 ELEMENTE DE CALCUL AL NECESARULUI DE AZOT PENTRU IZOLAREA CU DOP DE GHEAȚĂ A UNEI CONDUCTE ORIZONTALE DE DIAMETRU MARE

COMPUTATIONAL ELEMENTS FOR THE REQUIRED NITROGEN DURING THE ICE PLUG ISOLATION OF A HORIZONTAL HIGH DIAMETER PIPE-LINE
The technique of forming controlled ice plugs in pipe-line installations in order to isolate a section from the rest of the circuit is used for carrying out circuit maintenance or repair activities without shutting down the entire installation. Considering the results from a controlled test that has been carried out on a horizontal 300 mm nominal diameter pipe-line section, we elaborated a calculation model to reveal the quantity of required liquid nitrogen. It resulted consumption 50 % higher than the actual one. The difference comes from the approximations made for the ice plug dimensions in each stage of the process.
The paper then describes the convenience of visualizing the formation of ice plugs by studying the formation of the ice layers on the pipe inner wall.
Keywords: isolating a pipe-line section, visualizing the forming of ice layers
Cuvinte cheie: izolarea unui tronson de conductă, vizualizarea depunerii de gheaţă

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32-99 STUDII ȘI CERCETĂRI ALE DEZVOLTĂRII STEATOHEPATITEI NONALCOOLICE ÎN BAZA FACTORILOR DE MEDIU ȘI COMPORTAMENTALI CU PRIVIRE LA CONSUMUL ENERGETIC ȘI DE LICHIDE

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES OF THE NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS ON THE BASIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS WITH CONCERN IN ENERGETIC AND LIQUIDS CONSUMPTION
The present scientific article shows among other aspects also the state of the art on non-alcoholic-steato-hepatitis (NASH) and its diagnosis procedure, clinical course, evolution prognosis and therapeutic options available today. It may be pointed out that NASH is a benign although serious disease that has little to do with alcohol but which may lead ultimately to cirrhosis. Environmental factors due to pollution influence may have a contribution in this, as well as the behaviour and education. The present paper review some studies concerning the NASH conditions in the western world and in the same time analyses the relation between environmental state and the disease progress. The paper points out an applied effort on the environmental pollution problem impact on health.
Keywords: behaviour, environment, NASH, overweight, pollution
Cuvinte cheie: comportament, mediu, NASH, supraponderal, poluare

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