# Volumul 24

## 24-1 METODE STATISTICE APLICATE ÎN STUDIUL FIABILITĂŢII SISTEMELOR TEHNICE

STATISTICS METHODS APPLIED TO RELIABILITY
ENGINEERING
The analysis of system reliability often requires the use of subjective
judgments, uncertain data and approximate system models. By allowing
imprecision and approximate statistic methods provides an effective tool for
characterizing system reliability.
Cuvinte cheie: metodă, statistică, fiabilitate, sisteme tehnice, calitate
Keywords: method, statistics, reliability, technical systems, quality

1 METODE STATISTICE APLICATE ÎN STUDIUL FIABILITĂŢII SISTEMELOR TEHNICE

## 24-2 METODĂ DE ESTIMARE A INTERVALELOR DE MENTENANŢĂ ȘI REDUCEREA CONSUMULUI DE ENERGIE LA UTILAJELE DE PROCES

ESTIMATION METHOD OF MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
AND TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
IN PROCESS EQUIPMENT
Complex technical systems are subject to inherent failures caused by
failure of equipment components in different phases of their operation. The
existence of a database on the history of operation of each piece of equipment
is absolutely necessary given that wants to establish a optimal maintenance
schedule so as to avoid the occurrence of failures due to degradation over time
components. This paper proposes a method for calculating the rate of
occurrence of disposals due to wear (degradation time) or instant accident
where an installation of process equipment.
Cuvinte cheie: mentenanţă, uzură, predicţie
Keywords: Maintenance, Wear out, Prediction

2 METODĂ DE ESTIMARE A INTERVALELOR DE MENTENANŢĂ ȘI REDUCEREA CONSUMULUI DE ENERGIE LA UTILAJELE DE PROCES

## 24-3 MENTENANŢA PREDICTIVĂ A ANGRENAJELOR MAŞINILOR-UNELTE PRIN ANALIZA VIBRAŢIILOR

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE OF GEARING MACHINERY
VIBRATION ANALYSIS TOOLS
This paper presents the implementing maintenance management for
organizing and preparing system of spare parts to optimize repair time.
Planning the activities of repair and minimizing „downtime” of the machine can
be made only through detection of possible defects. The machine tools
reliability and safety increase, they give respectively operating costs decreased
lead to a better total cost. By studying the vibration signal produced by a gear in
a machine tool structure and the change of the signal related to the presence of
defects gear can identify various defects. Defects are localized at the contact
between the mechanical parts, which means changing of geometry and
conditions of power transmission, which results in vibrations and shocks, the
measurements for determining the gear failures occur.
Cuvinte cheie: angrenajele mașinilor unelte, zgomot, vibraţii, eroare de
transmisie, mentenanța predictivă
Keywords: spur gear, noise, gear vibration, transmission error,
predictive maintenance

3 MENTENANŢA PREDICTIVĂ A ANGRENAJELOR MAŞINILOR-UNELTE PRIN ANALIZA VIBRAŢIILOR

## 24-4 FENOMENELE DE FRECARE ÎNTRE LAMELELE CUPLAJELOR ELECTROMAGNETICE (I)

FRICTION PHENOMENONS BETWEEN LAMELLAS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH (I)
The paper presents the basic elements of friction phenomenons
between lamellas of electomagnetic clutch, after dissertation of Corneliu
Cashin Ph. D.
Cuvinte cheie: fenomenul de frecare, cuplaje electromagnetice
Keywords: the phenomenon of friction, electro-magnetic couplings

4 FENOMENELE DE FRECARE ÎNTRE LAMELELE CUPLAJELOR ELECTROMAGNETICE (I)

## 24-5 FENOMENELE DE FRECARE ÎNTRE LAMELELE CUPLAJELOR ELECTROMAGNETICE (II)

FRICTION PHENOMENONS BETWEEN LAMELLAS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH (II)
The paper presents the basic elements of friction phenomenons
between lamellas of electomagnetic clutch, after dissertation of Corneliu
Cashin Ph. D.
Cuvinte cheie: fenomenul de frecare, cuplaje electromagnetice
Keywords: the phenomenon of friction, electro-magnetic couplings

5 FENOMENELE DE FRECARE ÎNTRE LAMELELE CUPLAJELOR ELECTROMAGNETICE (II)

## 24-6 DEZVOLTĂRI ACTUALE PRIVIND INSTRUMENTELE CLASICE ALE CALITĂȚII (I)

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS
IN THE CLASSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF QUALITY (I)
This paper presents the current development of the classical
instruments of quality (Pareto diagram, cause-and-effect diagram, types of
graphics).
Cuvinte cheie: diagrama Pareto, diagrama cauza efect, tipuri de
grafice
Keywords: Pareto diagram, cause-effect diagram, graph types

6 DEZVOLTĂRI ACTUALE PRIVIND INSTRUMENTELE CLASICE ALE CALITĂȚII (I)

## 24-7 DEZVOLTĂRI ACTUALE PRIVIND INSTRUMENTELE CLASICE ALE CALITĂȚII (II)

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS
IN THE CLASSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF QUALITY (II)
This paper presents the current development of the classical
instruments of quality (correlation diagram, control chart, flow chart).
Cuvinte cheie: diagrama de corelație, diagrama de control, diagrama
procesului
Keywords: correlation diagram, chart, chart control process

7 DEZVOLTĂRI ACTUALE PRIVIND INSTRUMENTELE CLASICE ALE CALITĂȚII (II)

## 24-8 CERINȚELE DE MENTENANȚĂ ALE UNUI PARC AUTO DE TRANSPORT PUBLIC URBAN DE DIMENSIUNE MEDIE

MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS OF AN URBAN PUBLIC
TRANSPORT FLEET SIZE MEDIUM
The present paper provides a brief introduction on the field of
automotive maintenance and the it importance has in managing a medium size
fleet of public transport. Starting from the definition of the maintenance and the
main types of classification, have followed basic requirements of the urban
public transport service, organization of maintenance and need for them, in the
context of a out of work statistical study. Finally, pointing conclusions reflect the
advantages and benefits of the application maintenance strategies in a fleet of
urban public transport.
Cuvinte cheie: întreținere, fiabilitate, flotă de transport public,
autobuze, defecte, analize statistice, „diagrama Pareto”
Keywords: maintenance, reliability, public transport fleet, buses,
malfunctioning, statistical analysis, “Pareto diagram”

8 CERINȚELE DE MENTENANȚĂ ALE UNUI PARC

## 24-9 CENTRUL DE TESTĂRI FEROVIARE FĂUREI AL AUTORITĂŢII FEROVIARE ROMÂNE – AFER SINGURUL POLIGON FEROVIAR DIN SUD-ESTUL EUROPEI

ROMANIAN RAILWAY AUTHORITY AFER’S FĂUREI
RAILWAY TESTING CENTER THE ONLY RAILWAY
FACILITY FROM SOUTH EST OF EUROPE
Romanian Railway Authority AFER is the technical body of Ministry of
Transport in charge with railroad safety. AFER is a complex structure with four
independent bodies: Romanian Railway Safety Authority ASFR, Romanian
Railway Notified Body ONFR, Romanian Railway Investigation Body OIFR and
Romanian Railway Licensing Body. As a part of ONFR there are AFER’s
laboratories and as part of AFER is Railway Testing Center Făurei (CTF
Făurei).
Cuvinte cheie: AFER, ONFR, CTF, încercări, validare
Keywords: AFER, ONFR, CTF, attempts, validation testing

9 CENTRUL DE TESTĂRI FEROVIARE FĂUREI AL AUTORITĂŢII FEROVIARE ROMÂNE – AFER SINGURUL POLIGON FEROVIAR DIN SUD-ESTUL EUROPEI

## 24-10 CALCULUL CANTITĂŢII DE AER VICIAT CE TREBUIE EVACUAT DIN PARCAJE ÎN CAZUL UTILIZĂRII SISTEMULUI DE VENTILARE JET-FAN COMPARATIV CU SISTEMUL CLASIC CU CONDUCTE

HOW TO CALCULATE THE NECESSARY VENTILATION
QUANTITY IN CAR PARKS FOR JET VENTILATION SYSTEM
IN OPPOSITE WITH CLASSICAL VENTILATION BY DUCTS
ventilation in car parks and to presents how to calculate the necessary
ventilation quantity for jet ventilation system in opposite with classical ventilation
by ducts.
Cuvinte cheie: CO, aer viciat, evacuare, jet-fun şi clasic
Keywords: CO, air, exhaust, tainted, jet-fun and classic

10 CALCULUL CANTITĂŢII DE AER VICIAT CE TREBUIE EVACUAT DIN PARCAJE ÎN CAZUL UTILIZĂRII SISTEMULUI DE VENTILARE JET-FAN COMPARATIV CU SISTEMUL CLASIC CU CONDUCTE

## 24-11 TESTAREA CUTEI DE VITEZǍ PENTRU AUTOTURISME CU ACŢIONARE ELECTRICǍ PE UN STAND EXPERIMENTAL

VERIFICATION OF ELECTRIC CAR GEARBOX
ON THE EXPERIMENTAL STAND
The paper presents the verication of electric car gearbox on the
experimental stand
Cuvinte cheie: stand de verificare cutii de viteză
Keywords: check boxes stand speed

11 TESTAREA CUTEI DE VITEZǍ PENTRU

## 24-12 TESTAREA COMPORTAMENTULUI LA EROZIUNE CAVITAŢIONALĂ A UNUI ALIAJ NEFEROS CU 88 % ALUMINIU

CAVITATION EROSION BEHAVIOR TESTING OF A NON
FERROUS ALLOY WITH 88 % ALUMINIUM
This paper presents cavitation erosion behaviour testing of the
nonferrous alloys AlSi12 with 88 % Aluminium. Vibratory cavitation tests were
made on a cavitation stand in the laboratory, using the stationary specimen
method. This alloy is not subject to cavitation erosion in practical applications,
as is the stainless steels used in hydraulic turbines, but the experimental
research highlight the behaviour of a material (AlSi12, in this case) when the
period of time testing are different. Research results are presented through
graphs and representative images.
Cuvinte cheie: eroziune cavitaţională, compoziţie chimică, macrostructură
Keywords: cavitation erosion, chemical composition, macrostructure

12 TESTAREA COMPORTAMENTULUI LA EROZIUNE CAVITAŢIONALĂ A UNUI ALIAJ NEFEROS

## 24-13 STAND DEMONSTRATIV PENTRU RECUPERAREA ENERGIEI CINETICE DE ROTAŢIE LA MECANISME ROTATIVE CU ACŢIONARE HIDRAULICĂ

DEMONSTRATION STAND FOR ROTATIONAL KINETIC
ENERGY RECOVERY FROM THE ROTATING MECHANISMS
WITH HYDRAULIC DRIVING
The paper presents a demonstrative stand which aims the
demonstration of possibility for rotational kinetic energy recovery from the
rotating mechanisms with hydraulic driving. There are presented the conceptual
schema of the stand, the main components of the stand and, finally, there are
presented some experimental results, which contain the graphical variation of
the main dynamic parameters, which can demonstrate the possibility to
recovery of the rotational kinetic energy from the rotating Mechanisms with
hydraulic driving from the technological equipments.
Cuvinte cheie: recuperarea energiei, stand de testare, cercetare
experimentală, eficienţă energetică, senzori şi traductoare, achiziţie date
Keywords: energy recovery, testing, experimental research, energy
efficiency, sensors and transducers, data acquisition

13 STAND DEMONSTRATIV PENTRU

## 24-14 STUDII ŞI CERCETǍRI DE MENTENANŢA UTILAJELOR

STUDIES AND RESEARCHERS OF EQUIPEMENT
MAINTENANCE
This paper contains a few knpwledges about the equipment
maintenance. The study proposed refers to two aspects particularly important in
the maintenance study. They relate to: global vision of the management and
maintenance routine maintenance conditional.
Cuvinte cheie: mentenanţa utilajelor, managementul mentenanţei,
mentenanţa condiţională
Keywords: equipment maintenance, maintenance management,
maintenance conditional

14 STUDII ŞI CERCETǍRI

## 24-15 EXTINDEREA SOLUBILITĂŢII ÎN STARE SOLIDĂ A SISTEMULUI Fe-Ni PRIN ALIERE MECANICĂ

SOLID STATE SOLUBILITY EXTINCTION OF Fe-Ni SISTEM
BY MECHANICAL ALLOYING
Experiments took place in a high energy ball planetary mill, with four
villas. There were used 46 balls having 15 mm diameter to mill 100 g powder
mixtures of Fe80Ni20, Fe70Ni30, Fe60Ni40, Fe50Ni50, Fe40Ni60, Fe30Ni70,
Fe20Ni80 (figures in mass %) in each vial. Milling space of each vial was filled
a half with balls and powder and the balls/powder mass ratio was of 8: 1. There
were taken samples (5 g of mixture powder) at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64
hours of milling. The appeared identified phases are solid solutions of Fe(VCC)
and Ni(FCC) in the milled mixtures subjected to a minimum 2 hours of milling.
Iron is imposing its crystallizing system between 70 – 100 mass % of Fe and
nickel between 40 – 100 mass % of Ni.
Cuvinte cheie: aliere mecanică, pulberi Fe – Ni, moară planetară
Keywords: mechanical alloying, Fe-Ni powders, planetary mill

15 EXTINDEREA SOLUBILITĂŢII ÎN STARE SOLIDĂ

## 24-16 DEZVOLTAREA OŢELULUI DE ÎNALTĂ REZISTENŢĂ SLAB ALIAT (HSLA)

DEVELOPING OF THE HIGH-STRENGTH
LOW-ALLOY STEEL (HSLA)
In present high-strength low-alloy steels have gained a significant
position in the engineering arena and began the most important ferrous alloy
design and manufacture of metal structures. Achieving high-strength low-alloy
steels usually require a greater complexity to the design and steel processing to
ensure structural integrity. These include a complex system in which the
processing conditions are crucial and require an appropriate design of steel
grades used. With increasing resistance of the material and economic use of a
welding process can be achieved remarkable cost savings in construction
works. Now high-strength low-alloy steels are used for almost all complex
metallic structures: tanks, bridges, construction equipment, machinery etc. This
is largely confirmed by the use of high strength steel with vanadium micro Highstrength
low-alloy-V.
Cuvinte cheie: oţel HSLA, caracteristici, oţel HSLA-V
Keywords: HSLA steel, HSLA steel, features index

16 DEZVOLTAREA OŢELULUI DE

## 24-17 DISPOZITIV EXPERIMENTAL ŞI STAND DE TESTARE PENTRU DETERMINAREA FORŢELOR DE FRECARE DIN ETANŞĂRILE PISTOANELOR CILINDRILOR HIDRAULICI

EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE AND TESTING STAND FOR
DETERMINING OF THE FRICTION FORCES FROM THE
PISTON SEALING OF THE HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS
The paper presents an experimental research regarding the
determining the friction forces which appear in the piston sealings of the
hydraulic cylinders and are presented the adopted technical solutions for the
experimental device and tor the testing stand for determining of the friction
forces from the piston seals, and, also, some interesting conclusions.
Cuvinte cheie: etanşări, forţe de frecare, cilindri hidraulici, dispozitiv
experimental, stand testare, senzori şi traductoare, achiziţie de date
Keywords: seals, frictional forces, hydraulic cylinders, experimental
device, test bench, sensors and transducers, data acquisition

17 DISPOZITIV EXPERIMENTAL ŞI STAND DE TESTARE PENTRU DETERMINAREA FORŢELOR DE FRECARE DIN ETANŞĂRILE PISTOANELOR

## 24-18 DETERMINAREA PARAMETRILOR LEGII DE ECRIUSARE

THE DETERMINATION OF PARAMETERS
OF COLD HARDENING LAW
The paper presents the basic elements for determination of
parameters of cold hardening law.
Cuvinte cheie: coeficient de ecruisare
Keywords: coefficient of-hardening

18 DETERMINAREA PARAMETRILOR

## 24-19 CONSIDERAȚII ASUPRA GEOMETRIEI SUPAPELOR DE LA MOTOARELE CU ARDERE INTERNĂ CU PISTOANE

REFLECTIONS ON THE GEOMETRY VALVE PISTON INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
This paper deals with the need to amend the exhaust valve geometry
from internal combustion piston engines.
Cuvinte cheie: supapă, temperatură, gaze de ardere
Keywords: valve, temperature, flue gas

19 CONSIDERAȚII ASUPRA GEOMETRIEI

## 24-20 CERCETǍRI PRIVIND OBŢINEREA PIESELOR INJECTATE DIN PULBERE DE FIER

RESEARCH FOR OBTAINING OF IRON POWDER
INJECTED PARTS
Complex shape parts of small size and made in mass production may
be economically produced by metallic or ceramic powder injection. This modern
technology considers using a multi-component binder added to a small grain
size powder (less than 40 μm). During spraying iron powder process results a
small grain size fraction, which can be used in obtaining of injected parts. There
are presented the results of our research for obtaining of parts by injection
moulding technology in present paper. Present results are referring to used
binder properties, injection conditions, resulting shrinkage after injection and
de-binding, as well as the causes of defects may appear in injected parts. It is
noticed that, in addition to the binder characteristics, the knowledge of injection
process parameters and the de-binding conditions are very important in the
Cuvinte cheie: formarea prin injecţie, deliere, metalurgia pulberilor
Keywords: injection training, debinding, powder metallurgy

20 CERCETǍRI PRIVIND OBŢINEREA PIESELOR INJECTATE DIN PULBERE DE FIER

## 24-21 ÎNTREŢINEREA PREVENTIVĂ A AUTOVEHICULEOR

STUDY AND RESEARCH ON MAINTENANCE
MEANS OF TRANSPORT
The document shows the vehicle maintenance phases, in short, are
moments that need minor or major maintenance, daily care. It seeks to avoid
damage auto vehicles during the race, immobilization, thus avoiding the late of
goods or damage.
Cuvinte cheie: mentenanţă, autovehicule, reparaţii, fiabilitate
Keywords: maintenance, vehicles, repair, reliability

21 ÎNTREŢINEREA PREVENTIVĂ

## 24-22 DERAIEREA ÎN ALINIAMENT A VEHICULELOR MOTOARE DE CALE FERATĂ CAUZATĂ DE ESCALADAREA ROŢII ATACANTE PE FLANCUL ŞINEI

THE STRAIGHT LINE DERAILMENT OF RAILWAYS MOTOR
VEHICLES DUE TO CLIMB UP OF THE DRIVING WHEEL
OVER THE RAIL
The derailments due to climb up of the driving wheel onto the top of
the railhead are between the most common causes of railway accidents. Wheel
flange climb derailments occur in situations where the wheel experience a high
lateral force Y, or when vertical force Q is reduced on the flanging wheel and
Nadal’s Y/Q ratio limit is exceeded for a certain time duration limit.
Cuvinte cheie: deraiere, raport de deraiere, pseudoalunecare, sarcina
pe roată, forţa laterală
Keywords: derailment, relative to derailment, slips the false, task force
on the wheel side, lateral force

22 DERAIEREA ÎN ALINIAMENT A VEHICULELOR MOTOARE DE CALE FERATĂ CAUZATĂ DE ESCALADAREA ROŢII ATACANTE PE FLANCUL ŞINEI

## 24-23 SIMULAREA COMPORTAMENTULUI DINAMIC AL VEHICULELOR FEROVIARE CU AJUTORUL PROGRAMULUI ADAMS/RAIL

RAILWAY VEHICLE DINAMICAL BEHAVIOR
Numerical methods are widely used in purpose to predict the behaviour
of a railway vehicle. Among numerical applications less known are MBS
software.
Cuvinte cheie: MBS, Adams/Rail, vehicul feroviar, dinamică
Keywords: MBS, Adams\/Rail, rail vehicle dynamics

23 SIMULAREA COMPORTAMENTULUI DINAMIC AL VEHICULELOR FEROVIARE CU AJUTORUL

## 24-24 SIMULAREA COMPRESIUNII PE TAMPOANELE UNUI VAGON DE MARFĂ UTILIZAT ÎN TRANSPORTURILE UZINALE CU METODA ELEMENTELOR FINITE

FREIGHT WAGON USED FOR FACTORY TRANSPORT
COMPRESSION BUFFERS SIMULATION USING FINITE
ELEMENTS METHOD
Finite elements method is one of most powerful instrument of the
mechanical engineer do its versatility. Finite element method was developed by
aeronautical engineers but since his appearance the method was use also in
other fields like automotive, civil engineering etc.
Cuvinte cheie: vagon de marfă, cale ferată uzinală, elemente finite
Keywords: freight wagon, the railroad of the plant, finite elements

24 SIMULAREA COMPRESIUNII PE TAMPOANELE UNUI VAGON DE MARFĂ UTILIZAT ÎN TRANSPORTURILE UZINALE CU METODA ELEMENTELOR FINITE

## 24-25 RULAREA PE ŞINĂ A UNEI ROŢI MOTOARE ÎN CONDIŢII DE ADERENŢĂ SCĂZUTĂ CAUZATE DE PREZENŢA UNUI CONTAMINANT

THE ROLLING OF A DRIVING WHEEL ON THE RAIL
BY PRESENCE OF A CONTAMINANT
One of the most important factors for providing the rolling safety
conditions of the rolling stock is adherence. A certain level of adherence is
imperative in traction and breaking processes. When low adherence between
wheel and rail occurs, many negative factors can arise, such as: defects on
wheels and rails, station platform overruns, signals passed at danger and even
collisions. Among the causes that get to decrease wheel-rail adhesion is natural
contamination. The major adherence reducers are: water, rust, oil and leaves.
roată-şină, viteză de alunecare, contaminant
sliding speed, that contaminates

25 RULAREA PE ŞINĂ A UNEI ROŢI MOTOARE

## 24-26 ANALIZA PRINCIPALELOR RESURSE ALE PǍMANTULUI PRIN PRIZMA CONCEPTULUI DE DEZVOLTARE DURABILᾸ

ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN RESOURCES OF THE EARTH
THROUGH THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT ACKNOWLEDGES
The paper is reviewing data from specialized literature regarding
intense anthropic systems. The development of urban-industrialized areas and
impact on two of the basic natural resources: water and energy were analysed.
It discusses a modern concept of water footprint on finished products
and changes in energy consumption by the global distribution of natural
resources.
Cuvinte cheie: dezvoltare durabilă, resurse ale Pământului,
ecosisteme, apa, energie
Keywords: sustainable development, Earth resources, ecosystems,
water, energy

26 ANALIZA PRINCIPALELOR RESURSE ALE

## 24-27 ZONE INDUSTRIALE ÎNTRE RENOVARE ȘI RECONVERSIE

INDUSTRIAL SITES BETWEEN RENOVATION
AND REFURBISHMENT
In this work are presented the main characteristics of how to transform
an industrial site into a sustaineble community or industrial entity without
affecting building character. Keeping an identity to a site helps preserve the
history. A well built community relies on sustainebility of it’s interventions and
on it’s inhabitants.
Cuvinte cheie: sustenabilitate, energie regenerabilă, reconversie
industrială
Keywords: sustainability, renewable energy, industrial conversion

27 ZONE INDUSTRIALE ÎNTRE RENOVARE

## 24-28 DEZVOLTARE DURABILĂ – CRITERII DE EVALUARE PENTRU PRODUSELE DE ORIGINE BIOLOGICĂ

SUSTAINABILITY – ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR
BIO-BASED PRODUCTS
In recent years the societal pressure to address the issues of climate
change and fossil resources ineluctable depletion has significantly increased.
The main reason of the recent interest in bio-based products is due to the origin
of the materials (wholly or partly derived from biomass) and the development of
new functionalities of the final products. The use of bio based raw materials
could be beneficial with reference to two current problems: fossil resources
depletion and climate change. Efficient use of all available resources and
responsible utilization of renewable carbon is a way to participate to this
reduction.
The currently available biomass is consumed in different segments:
food and feed production, power and heat generation, biofuel production and
industrial applications.
Cuvinte cheie: biomasă, produse de origine biologică, criterii de
durabilitate
Keywords: biomass, bio based products, sustainability criteria

28 DEZVOLTARE DURABILĂ – CRITERII DE EVALUARE PENTRU PRODUSELE DE ORIGINE BIOLOGICĂ

## 24-29 EVALUAREA RECICLĂRII MATERIALELOR PLASTICE DIN PUNCT DE VEDERE AL ECO-EFICIENŢEI

EVALUATION OF PLASTICS RECYCLING OF TERMS OF
ECO-EFFICIENCY
Modern technology requires a systematic approach according to which
materials engineers are involved directly or indirectly related to compliance with
product strategy to report the use of materials from traditional and new. Today
plastics are generated from a variety of sources and large amounts of material
are deposited, resulting in difficulties in storage. Industrial processing or
storage of plastics is extremely difficult and has become a social problem in
recent years. Recycling of plastics can be a solution for the reduction of
environmental impact and efficient use of natural resources limited and the
process of exhaustion. Implementation of a new technology for recycling of
plastics can be problematic due to significant differences in costs related to the
weight of the components of the eco-efficiency analysis system that must be
customized. Advanced recycling of plastics contributes significantly to
enhanced environmental management implementation that allows environment
and economy to coexist harmoniously in a sustainable development paradigm
of the beginning of this century.
Cuvinte cheie: mase plastice, reciclare, impactul asupra mediului
Keywords: plastics, recycling, environmental impact

29 EVALUAREA RECICLĂRII MATERIALELOR PLASTICE DIN PUNCT DE VEDERE AL ECO-EFICIENŢEI

## 24-30 GESTIONAREA ŞI RECICLAREA DEŞEURILOR ELECTRONICE

MANAGEMENT AND RECICLING OF ELECTRONIC WASTE
In this paper we present the waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE), obsolete, which is one of the highest rates of growth at the global
level. The recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment can be
profitable when the constituent materials are recovered in the recycling
process. Waste electrical and electronic equipment, plastics and a range of
common metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, etc.) also contain precious metals: Au, Ag, Pt,
as well as rare material: indium, gallium and rare earth. In this paper are
presented and issues related to management systems and recycling process of
waste management of electrical and electronic equipment.
Cuvinte cheie: metale preţioase, materiale limitate-deșeuri de
echipamente electrice și electronice, colectare, reciclare
Keywords: precious metals, materials limited-waste electrical and
electronic equipment, collection, recycling

30 GESTIONAREA ŞI RECICLAREA DEŞEURILOR ELECTRONICE

## 24-31 METODE DE REDUCERE A COSTURILOR DE EXPLOATARE PENTRU STAȚIILE DE EPURARE RURALE

METHODS OF REDUCING THE OPERATING COSTS FOR
WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN RURAL SETTLEMENTS
This paper represents an analysis of the development of sewage treament
plants, in Romania, for the next decade. It also describes the current solutions
to reduce operating costs for wastewater treatment. Although current solutions
are viable for large capacity wastewater treatment plants, they are not efficient
for small capacity water treatment plants from rural areas. This paper identifies
unconventional and extensive technologies of wastewater treatment as optimal
solutions for rural settlements. One of these technologies is the constructed
wetlands. Identifying and understanding that constructed wetlands are the
optimal solution for rural settlements is an important milestone for the aiming to
reduce the energy costs at national level and thus reduce the risks related to
environmental pollution.
Cuvinte cheie: așezări rurale, platouri dinamice, zone umede construite,
tehnologii neconvenționale, extensive
Keywords: rural settlements, plateaus, constructed wetlands,
unconventional technologies, extensive

31 METODE DE REDUCERE A COSTURILOR DE EXPLOATARE PENTRU STAȚIILE

## 24-32 PRACTICA VALORIFICĂRII ENERGETICE A PAIELOR ÎN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

ОПЫТ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКОГО ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ
СОЛОМЫ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ МОЛДОВА
Располагаемый энергетический потенциал соломы в Республике
Молдова составляет 4…10 % от общего энергопотребления. Средняя
влажность сжигаемой соломы составляет 10,09 %, средняя теплота
сгорания – 14,47 MJ/kg. Котлы работают с к.п.д. в 1,5…2,0 раза ниже
паспортного. Выбросы парниковых газов сокращаются за счет замещения
природного газа соломой на 400…500 kg CO2eq на тонну соломы. С
ростом номинальной теплопроизводительности котла на 100 kW
себестоимость производимого тепла снижается на 6…8 %.
Cuvinte cheie: paie, cazan, randament, emisii
Ключевые слова: солома, котел, к.п.д., выбросы

32 PRACTICA VALORIFICĂRII ENERGETICE

## 24-33 RECICLAREA CARDURILOR

CARDS RECYCLING
Increased use of different materials in the manufacture of products
alongside scale use increasingly larger plastics led to the complex problems
related to recycling at end of life. Reducing the amount of material deposited is
a goal that should be taken into consideration at all times complies in recycling
of materials in accordance with the law more restrictive. Explore the possibility
of reducing plastics recycling materials from cards stored results represents the
desire of this article. Based on the analysis and determinations are capabilities
and experimental results illustrated the fundamental data about recycling of
materials in reducing the amount of plastic land filled.
Cuvinte cheie: materiale de reciclare, reciclare, impactul de mediu,
carduri reciclabile
Keywords: recycling, materials recycling, environmental impact,
recycled cards

33 RECICLAREA CARDURILOR

## 24-34 MINIMIZAREA IMPACTULUI GENERAT DE CĂTRE DEPOZITELE DE DEŞEURI PERICULOASE ASUPRA MEDIULUI LA NIVELUL MUNICIPIULUI CLUJ-NAPOCA PRIN INTERMEDIUL TRANSPUNERII LEGISLAŢIEI EUROPENE

MINIMIZING THE IMPACT GENERATED BY HAZARDOUS
WASTE LANDFILLS ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN CLUJNAPOCA
MUNICIPALITY BY THE TRANSPOSITION OF E.U
LEGISLATION
The environmental impact generated by hazardous waste landfill is a
special issue due to the degree of hazard posed, so it requires special
attention. This paper aims to present the evolution of hazardous waste landfills
and the strategy of minimizing the environmental impact and human health
through the EU legislation transposed into the national context.
The study is based on the measures taken by the trader to a hazardous landfill
following the transposition of the European Directive 99/31/EC on landfill.
In the municipality of Cluj-Napoca, hazardous waste landfill belonging
to the society of Terapia, was considered non-compliant in the 349/2005 law
context. As a result of the adoption of the European legislation, has made a
comparative study of standards of hazardous waste in the municipality of Cluj-
Napoca before and after the implementation of the European Directive
99/31/EC.
Cuvinte cheie: impact, deşeuri periculoase, factori de mediu, directiva,
minimizarea impactului asupra mediului.
Keywords: impact, hazardous wastes, environmental factors, directive,
minimizing the environmental impact

34 MINIMIZAREA IMPACTULUI GENERAT DE CĂTRE DEPOZITELE DE DEŞEURI PERICULOASE ASUPRA MEDIULUI LA NIVELUL MUNICIPIULUI CLUJ-NAPOCA PRIN INTERMEDIUL TRANSPUNERII LEGISLAŢIEI EUROPENE

## 24-35 CERCETAREA INFLUENŢEI FACTORILOR DE INTRARE ASUPRA EFICIENŢEI DE SEPARARE ÎN CÂMP ELECTRIC A PRAFULUI DIN AERUL VENTILAT

INFLUENCE ENTRANCE FACTORS RESEARCH
TO IONIC-ELECTRONIC PURIFICATION
A VENTILATION AIR
The paper includes the results of a theoretical study, achieved by
comparing media selection method, using dispersion analysis, in which we
chose emphasizing the input factors influenced, to achieve separation of
mechanical particles of ventilation air by electrical methods, and the
establishment of a mathematical model that would adequately describe the
process of separation studied.
Cuvinte cheie: câmp electric, electrozi injectori, intensitatea câmpului
electric, vânt electric
Keywords: camp, injectori electrodes, electric field intensity, wind
electric

35 CERCETAREA INFLUENŢEI FACTORILOR DE

## 24-36 CERCETAREA INFLUENŢEI PARAMETRILOR FUNCŢIONALI DE REGIM ASUPRA EFICIENŢEI DE SEPARARE A PARTICULELOR ÎN CÂMP ELECTRIC ALTERNATIV DE TENSIUNE ÎNALTĂ

INFLUENCE ENTRANCE FACTORS RESEARCH
TO IONIC-ELECTRONIC PURIFICATION
A VENTILATION AIR
The paper includes the results of a theoretical study, achieved by
comparing media selection method, using dispersion analysis, in which we
chose emphasizing the input factors influenced, to achieve separation of
mechanical particles of ventilation air by electrical methods, and the
establishment of a mathematical model that would adequately describe the
process of separation studied.
Cuvinte cheie: câmp electric, electrozi injectori, intensitatea câmpului
electric, vânt electric
Keywords: camp, injectori electrodes, electric field intensity, wind
electric

36 CERCETAREA INFLUENŢEI PARAMETRILOR FUNCŢIONALI DE REGIM ASUPRA EFICIENŢEI DE SEPARARE A PARTICULELOR ÎN CÂMP ELECTRIC ALTERNATIV DE TENSIUNE ÎNALTĂ

## 24-37 STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA FONICĂ ÎN MEDIUL INDUSTRIAL

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS ON NOISE POLLUATION
IN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS
The document shows the importance of studying and research the
phenomenon of noise pollution which is a current issue both internationally and
nationally, because it affects people and causes so-called occupational
diseases. But we have to consider that the main source of noise pollution is
industrial environment.
Cuvinte cheie: poluare sonorǎ, impactul zgomotului, mediul industrial
Keywords: pollution, noise, impact sound environment design

37 STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA FONICĂ ÎN MEDIUL INDUSTRIAL

## 24-38 CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND CREŞTEREA PUTERII ŞI REDUCEREA ZGOMOTULUI PENTRU TURBINELE EOLIENE DE MICĂ PUTERE CU PALETE PREVĂZUTE CU WINGLET

NOISE REDUCTION FOR LOW POWER WIND TURBINES
WITH TURBINE BLADE WITH A WINGLET
The low power wind turbines are being designated for locations that
have as a characteristic a moderate wind regime. These are placed in the
proximity of human habitation, where is necesary to reduce the aerodynamic
noise. Adding a winglet bended towards upstream side to the existing blade
increase the force distribution on the blade and increase the produced power.
The winglet bended towards downstream side reduces the aerodynamic noise.
Cuvinte cheie: turbine de vânt de mică putere, zgomot aerodinamic,
capătul paletei, vizualizări în tunel aerodinamic
Keywords: low power wind turbines, aerodynamic noise, winglet,
visualizations in aerodynamic tunnel

38 CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND CREŞTEREA PUTERII ŞI REDUCEREA ZGOMOTULUI PENTRU TURBINELE EOLIENE DE MICĂ PUTERE CU PALETE

## 24-39 ASPECTE PRIVIND ANALIZA FENOMENELOR DE POLUARE PRODUSĂ DE MIJLOACELE DE TRANSPORT

ASPECTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF NUISANCES OF
POLLUTION PRODUCED BY MEANS OF TRANSPORT
The work shall be having some ways of analysis of the chemistry of
internal combustion engines of the means of transport. The results obtained
allow the assessment variation in time of noise nuisance concentrations in the
atmosphere free.
Cuvinte cheie: difuzia gazelor, concentraţie, coeficient de difuzie,
gradienţi de concentraţie, nor poluant, elemente finite
Key words: diffusion, gas concentration, diffusion coefficient, the

39 ASPECTE PRIVIND ANALIZA FENOMENELOR DE POLUARE PRODUSĂ DE MIJLOACELE DE TRANSPORT

## 24-40 STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA FONICĂ ÎN TRANSPORTURI

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS ON NOISE
POLLUATION IN THE TRANSPORTS
The document shows the importance of reducing noise pollution from
transport and to identify the factors underlying pollution. There are applied to
Cluj-Napoca municipality because it is one of the busiest cities from Romania
Cuvinte cheie: zgomot, frecvenţă, intensitate sonoră, poluare sonoră

40 STUDII ŞI CERCETĂRI PRIVIND POLUAREA

## 24-41 DETERMINAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A NIVELULUI ZGOMOTULUI PROFESIONAL, CU IMPLICAŢII ASUPRA SĂNĂTĂŢII OPERATORULUI UMAN

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF PROFESSIONAL
NOISE, WITH WORKERS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS
This paper presents measurement results of noise level emitted by a
lathe and effects of noise on health worker. It was noted that in some
circumstances the maximum allowable is exceeded which requires the use of
means of protection.
Cuvinte cheie: zgomot profesional, maşini-unelte, afecţiuni auditive
Keywords: noise, machine tools, auditory disorders

41 DETERMINAREA EXPERIMENTALĂ A NIVELULUI ZGOMOTULUI PROFESIONAL, CU IMPLICAŢII

## 24-42 TEHNICA FUZZY – MIJLOC DE EVALUARE A POLUĂRII SONORE ÎN MUNICIPIUL BISTRIŢA

FUZZY TECHNIQUE – EVALUATION METHOD OF NOISE
POLLUTION IN THE BISTRIŢA MUNICIPALITY
This paper contains a new method for the noise pollution study based
on the fuzzy technique, applied to the Bistriţa municiplaity. This method was not
used until this moment for the noise study, but this is a very good method
because it is a non invasive method end can be applied with succeful for the
noise pollution study. This aspect will be demonstrate in this paper.
Cuvinte cheie: poluare sonorǎ, tehnica fuzyy, metoda neinvazivǎ
Keywords: pollution sound, fuzyy technique, method noninvasive

42 TEHNICA FUZZY – MIJLOC DE EVALUARE

## 24-43 DETERMINAREA ATENUĂRII ZGOMOTULUI ÎN CAZUL UTILIZĂRII UNUI PANOU VERTICAL

DETERMINE IF NOISE ATTENUATION USE
A VERTICAL PANEL
This paper presents a taking the case of highway model consists of 4
lanes, avad 3.75 m on each band, two emergency lanes and a 3 m wide range
depasare separation between the meanings of 2.5 m Was defined attenuation
provided by a vertical panel with a height of 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 m, mounted on
the edge of highways on the frequency range 62.5 – 500 Hz.
Cuvinte cheie: panou vertical, ecranare acustică
Keywords: vertical panel, acoustic shielding

43 DETERMINAREA ATENUĂRII ZGOMOTULUI

## 24-44 CAPTAREA ENERGIEI SOLARE ȘI UTILIZAREA EI PENTRU ÎNCĂLZIREA APEI MENAJERE ȘI LA HELIOSTRATIFICAREA BUTAȘILOR ALTOIȚI DE VIȚĂ DE VIE

CAPTURING SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS USE FOR
WATER HEATING AND HELIOSTRATIFICAREA
COVERS OF GRAFTED VINES
Energy is one of the foundations of national economies of various
countries. Climate stability can be retrieved by switching to an energy economy
based on fossil fuels to one based on renewable energy sources (wind-wind,
Sun-capturing solar energy, biomass, same time) and hydrogen.
Use of renewable energy is developed a new technology in the field of
wine helio-layering. The new technology is based on the principle of using solar
energy (radiation) in the process of layering of vine cuttings. The basic principle
of this technology is capturing solar energy (radiation), magazinarea and
transporting them to the consumer – thermal heated mats with termoagentwater
Cuvinte cheie: energetică, energie solară, heliostratificarea, butași de
vie, covorașe termice încălzite cu apă
Keywords: energy, solar, helio-layering, seedlings, mats, heated with
thermal water

44 CAPTAREA ENERGIEI SOLARE ȘI UTILIZAREA EI PENTRU ÎNCĂLZIREA APEI MENAJERE ȘI LA HELIOSTRATIFICAREA BUTAȘILOR

## 24-45 ASPECTE PRIVIND MODELAREA TRANSFERULUI DE LICHID LA FILTRAREA APEI PRINTR-UN FILTRU DE NISIP

ISSUES REGARDING THE TRANSFER OF MODELLING
LIQUID TO WATER FILTRATION THROUGH A SAND FILTER
This paper brings study of hydrodynamic filtration laws and their
mathematical equations. Hydrological problems are formulated according
deterministic and stochastic methods. Modelling principles are presented for
solving specific hydrological issues.
Cuvinte cheie: legea lui Darcy, starea de echilibru, flux saturat, flux
tranzitoriu saturat, principii de modelare
Keywords: Darcy’s law, steady-state saturated flow, transient saturated
flow, modelling principles

45 ASPECTE PRIVIND MODELAREA

## 24-46 DETERMINAREA CALITĂȚII APEI DIN ECOSISTEMUL LACUL BABADAG

WATER QUALITY-DETERMINATION OF
Black Danube is declared the biggest natural reservation from Europe.
Due to the fact that Danube river is a water collector in Europe, it flows all the
impurities and pollutants that people discharge into rivers, which are affluent of
Danube. The present study is a warning against water pollution in the Danube
Delta, pollution that may affect biodiversity.
Cuvinte cheie: Delta Dunării, Lacul Babadag, apă poluată
Key words: Danube Delta, Babadag Lake, polluted water

46 DETERMINAREA CALITĂȚII APEI

## 24-47 UNELE MODALITĂŢI DE ESTIMARE A FIABILITĂŢII SUBSTANŢELOR CHIMICE ORGANICE SPECIALE

SOME WAYS TO ESTIMATE OF THE RELIABILITY
OF THE CHEMICALS SPECIAL ORGANIC
This paper presents some ways to estimate the reliability of
pyrotechnic substances, explosives, fuels for rocket engines, both in storage
operation, storage, handling, and storage and city life.
Cuvinte cheie: explozivi, combustibil, fiabilitate, funcţia de fiabilitate,
intensitatea defectelor, densitate de repartiţie
Keywords: explosives, fuel, reliability, dependability, fault, intensity
distribution density

47 UNELE MODALITĂŢI DE ESTIMARE A FIABILITĂŢII

## 24-48 OBSERVAȚII ASUPRA DEVERSĂRILOR ACCIDENTALE DE PRODUSE PETROLIERE

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE NOTES ON
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
Economic and social development requires economic benefits from
the sale and transportation of petroleum products, however, while their
consumption occurs a negative impact of oil spills both in terms of economic,
social and environmental impacts.
Cuvinte cheie: poluare, produse petroliere
Key words: pollution, petroleum products

48 OBSERVAȚII ASUPRA DEVERSĂRILOR

## 24-49 UTILIZAREA APEI ÎN JET PULVERIZAT PENTRU STINGEREA INCENDIILOR

THE USE OF WATER SPRAY IN FIRE FIGHTING
The intervention of fire fighting teams requires a series of activities
with the aim of limiting propagation and fire extinction. In the operational
procedures of intervention, setting distance and safety measures takes an
important place. The spray water facing the thick smoke may remove some of
its components and allow better local visibility to discover focus and act on it
directly, eliminating unnecessary water consumption. Using water spray is
important for fire safety and in terms of reducing the amount of water used.
Cuvinte cheie: apă, jet pulverizat, incendiu
Keywords: water, jet spray, fire

49 UTILIZAREA APEI ÎN JET PULVERIZAT

## 24-50 SISTEME DE EVACUARE A FUMULUI UTILIZATE LA HOTELURI

FIRE SMOKE EXHAUST SYSTEMS AND
EQUIPMENT USED IN HOTELS
This paper present some aspects regarding fire and smoke movement
in a hotel building and which are the smoke control methods to ensure the fire
safety of the building and fire protection of its occupants. Also, will be presented
subjects as smoke and exhaust ventilation systems and equipment used in
hotels and what role ventilation plays when a fire occurs in a hotel, which are
the interaction with other fire protection systems and other building systems.
Cuvinte cheie: securitatea la incendiu, evacuarea fumului, hotel,
incendiu
Keywords: fire safety, smoke evacuation, hotel, fire

50 SISTEME DE EVACUARE A FUMULUI